Our Beacon Forum Index Back to Homepage
Our Beacon
Salamun alaikum!
 
 FAQFAQ   SearchSearch   MemberlistMemberlist   UsergroupsUsergroups   RegisterRegister 
 ProfileProfile   Log in to check your private messagesLog in to check your private messages   Log inLog in 

Historical timeline of Islam from 570-2007

 
Post new topic   Reply to topic    Our Beacon Forum Index -> Islamic History
View previous topic :: View next topic  
Author Message
Arnold Yasin Mol
Guest





PostPosted: Wed Aug 29, 2007 4:25 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

1001: Mahmud of Ghaznavid defeats the Hindu Shahis.
1004: Mahmud of Ghaznavid captures Bhatiya.
1005: Mahmud of Ghaznavid captures Multan and Ghur.
1008: Mahmud of Ghaznavid defeats the Rajput confederacy.
1010: Abdication of Hisham II in Spain. Accession of Muhammad II.
1011: In Spain Muhammad II is overthrown by Sulaiman II.
1012: In Spain, power is captured by Bani Hamud. Death of the Buwayhid Baha ud Daula, accession of Sultan ud Daula.
1016: Death of the Zirrid ruler Nasir ud Daula Badis; accession of Al Muizz.
1018: In Spain, power is captured by Abd-ar-Rahman IV.
1019: Conquest of the Punjab by Mahmud of Ghaznavid.
1020: The Buwayhid Sultan ud Daula is overthrown by Musharaf ud Daula, Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al Hakim, accession of Ali az-Zahir.
1024: In Spain ,assassination of Abd-ar-Rahman IV.
1025: Death of the Buwayhid Mushgraf ud Daula, accession of Jalal ud Daula.
1029: In Spain, death of Mustaft, accession of Hisham III.
1030: Death of Mahmud of Ghaznavid.
1031: In Spain, deposition of Hisham III, and end of the Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba. Death of the Abbasid Caliph al-Qadir, accession of al-Qa'im.
1036: Death of the Fatimid Caliph Ali az-Zahir, accession of Ma'ad al-Mustansir Billah. Toghrül is crowned as the king of the Seljuks.
1040: Battle of Dandanaqan, the Seljuks defeat the Ghazanavids. Deposition of Mas'ud I of Ghaznavid Sultan, accession of Mehmed of Ghaznavid. Al Moravids come to power in North Africa.
1041: The Ghaznavid Sultan Mehmed of Ghaznavid is overthrown by Mawdud.
1044: Death of the Buwayhid Jalal ud Daula, accession of Abu Kalijar.
1046: Basasiri captures power in Baghdad.
1047: The Zirids in North Africa repudiate allegiance to the Fatimid and transfer allegiance to the Abbasids.
1048: Death of the Buwayhid Abu Kalijar, accession of Malik ur Rahim.
1050: Yusuf bin Tashfin comes to power in the Maghrib.
1055: Toghrül overthrows the Buwayhids.
1057: Basasiri recaptures power in Baghdad, deposes Al-Qa'im and offers allegiance to the Fatimid Caliph.
1059: Toghrül recaptures power in Baghdad, Al-Qa'im is restored as the Caliph.
1060: Ibrahim of Ghaznavid becomes the Sultan. Yusuf bin Tashfin founds the city of Marrakesh. The Zirids abandon their capital Ashir and establish their capital at Bougie.
1062: Death of the Zirid ruler Al Muizz, accession of Tamin.
1063: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Toghrül accession of Alp Arsalan.
1071: Battle of Manzikert, the Byzantine emperor taken captive by the Seljuks.
1073: Death of Alp Arsalan, accession of Malik Shah.
1077: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Qa'im, accession of Al-Muqtadi.
1082: The Almoravids conquer Algeria.
1086: Battle of Zallakha. The Almoravids defeat the Christians in Spain. Death of the Rum Seljuk Sultan Sulaiman, accession of Kilij Arsalan.
1091: The Normans conquer the island of Sicily; end of the Muslim rule.
1092: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah I, accession of Mahmud I of Great Seljuk.
1094: Death of Seljuk Sultan Mahmud I; accession of Barkiyaruq. Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Muqtadi, accession of Mustahzir.
1095: The first crusade.
1099: The crusaders capture Jerusalem.

1101: Death of the Fatimid Caliph al-Musta'li, accession of al-Amir Bi-Ahkamillah.
1105: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Barkiyaruq, accession Of Mehmed I of Great Seljuk.
1106: Death of the Al Motavid Yusuf bin Tashfin.
1107: Death of the Rum Seljuk Sultan Kilij Arslan I, succession of Malik Shah of Rüm.
1108: Death of the Zirid ruler Tamin, accession of Yahya of Zirid.
1116: Death of the Rum Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah. accession of Mas'ud of Rüm.
1118: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Muhammad; accession of Mahmud II of Great Seljuk. Death of the Abbasid Caliph al-Mustazhir, accession of al-Mustarshid. In Spain the Christians capture Saragossa.
1121: Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al-Amir Bi-Ahkamillah, accession of Al-Hafiz.
1127: Imad ad-Din Zengi establishes the Zengi rule In Mosul.
1128: Death of the Khawarzam Shah Qutb ud Din Muhammad; accession of Atsiz.
1130: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Mahmud II of Great Seljuk; accession of Toghrül II.
1134: Assassination of the Abbasid Caliph al-Mustarshid; accession of al-Rashid. Death of the Seljuk Sultan Toghrül II, accession of Mas'ud of Great Seljuk.
1135: Deposition of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Rashid, accession of Al-Muqtafi.
1144: Zengi captures Edessa from the Christians, second crusade.
1146: Death of Zengi, accession of Nur ad-Din.
1147: In the Maghrib Al Moravids overthrown by the Almohad under Abd al-Mu'min.
1148: End of the Zirid rule' in North Africa. Siege of Damascus repulsed, thus effectively winning the Second Crusade.
1149: Death of the Fatimid Caliph al-Hafiz, accession of Az-Zafir.
1152: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Mas'ud of Great Seljuk, accession of Malik Shah III. Hamadid rule extinguished in North Africa.
1153: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah III, accession of Mehmed II of Great Seljuk.
1154: Death of the Fatimid Caliph az-Zafir, accession of Al-Faiz.
1156: Death of the Rum Seljuk Sultan Mas'ud of Rüm, accession of Kilij Arslan II.
1159: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Mehmed II of Great Seljuk, accession of Gulaiman.
1160: Death of the Abbasid Caliph al-Muqtafi, accession of al-Mustanjid. Death of the Fatimid Caliph al-Faiz, accession of al-Adid.
1161: Death of the Seljuk Süleyman of Great Seljuk, accession of Arslan Shah.
1163: Death of the Almohad ruler Abd al-Mu'min, accession of Yusuf I, Almohad Caliph.
1170: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Mustanjid, accession of Al-Mustadi.
1171: Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al-Adid. End of the Fatimids. Saladin founds the Ayyubid dynasty in Egypt.
1172: Death of the Khawarzam Shah Arsalan, accession of Sultan Shah.
1173: The Khawarzam Shah Sultan Shah is overthrown by Tukush Shah.
1174: Saladin annexes Syria.
1175: The Ghurids defeat the Guzz Turks and occupy Ghazni.
1176: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Arslan Shah, accession of Toghrül III.
1179: Death of the Abbasid Caliph al-Mustadi, accession of an-Nasir. Shahab ud Din Ghuri captures Peshawar.
1185: Death of the Almohad ruler Yusuf I, Almohad Caliph, accession of Yaqub, Almohad Caliph.
1186: The Ghurids overthrow the Ghaznavid in the Punjab.
1187: Saladin wrests Jerusalem from the Christians, third crusade.
1191: First Battle of Tarain between the Rajputs and the Ghurids.
1192: Second Battle of Tarain.
1193: Death of Saladin; accession of Al-Aziz Uthman.
1194: Occupation of Delhi by the Muslims. End of the Seljuk rule.
1199: Death of the Khawarzam Shah Tukush Shah; accession of Ala ud Din. Death of the Almohad ruler Yaqub, Almohad Caliph; accession of Muhammad an-Nasir. Conquest of Northern India and Bengal by the Ghurids.

1202: Death of the Ghurid Sultan Ghias ud Din; accession of Mahmud of Ghurid.
1204: Shahab ud Din Ghuri defeated by the Ghuzz Turks.
1206: Death of Shahab ud Din Ghuri. Qutb ud Din Aibik crowned king in Lahore.
1210: Assassination of the Ghurid Sultan Mahmud, accession of Sam. Death of Qutb ud Din Aibak, accession of Aram Shah in India.
1211: End of the Ghurid rule, their territories annexed by the Khawarzam Shahs. In India Aram Shah overthrown by Iltutmish.
1212: Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in Spain, end of the Almohad rule in Spain. The Almohads suffer defeat by the Christians in Spain at the Las Navas de Tolosa. The Almohad Sultan Muhammad an-Nasir escapes to Morocco.
1213 Almohad Sultan Muhammad an-Nasir's death. Accession of his son Yusuf II, Almohad Caliph.
1216: The Marinids under their leader Abdul Haq occupy north eastern part of Morocco. The Almohad suffer defeat by the Marinids at the Battle of Nakur.
1217: The Marinids suffer defeat in the battle fought on the banks of the Sibu river. Abdul Haq is killed and the Marinids evacuate Morocco.
1218: Death of the Ayyubid ruler Al-Adil I, accession of Al-Kamil. The Marinids return to Morocco under their leader Othman and occupy Fez.
1220: Death of the Khwarezmid Shah Muhammad II of Khwarezm, accession of Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu.
1222: Death of the Zengid ruler Nasir ud Din Mahmud, power captured by Badr ud Din Lulu.
1223: Death of the Almohad ruler Yusuf II, Almohad Caliph, accession of Abdul-Wahid I, Almohad Caliph. In Spain a brother of Yusuf II, Almohad Caliph declares his independence and assumes the title of Al Adil (Abdallah, Almohad Caliph). In Spain Abu Muhammad of Spain overthrows Al Adil. Al Adil escapes to Morocco and overthrows Abdul-Wahid I, Almohad Caliph.
1224: Death of the Almohad ruler Abd al-Wahid I, accession of Abdallah, Almohad Caliph.
1225: Death of the Abbasid Caliph An-Nasir, accession of Az-Zahir.
1227: Assassination of the Almohad ruler Abdullah Adil, accession of his son, Yahya.
1229: Death of the Almohad ruler Yahya, accession of Idris I. The Ayyubid Al-Kamil restores Jerusalem to the Christians. Abu Muhammad of Spain dies in Spain and is succeeded by Al Mamun of Spain. Al Mamun invades Morocco with Christian help. Yahya is defeated and power is captured by Al Mamun. He denies the Mahdiship of Ibn Tumarat.
1230: End of the Khwarezmid Empire.
1232: Death of the Almohad ruler Idris I, accession, of Abdul Wahid II. Assassination of Al Mamun of Spain; accession of his son Ar-Rashid of Spain.
1234: Death of the Ayyubid ruler Al-Kamil, accession of Al-Adil II.
1236: Death of Delhi Sultan Altamash. Accession of Rukn ud din Firuz.
1237: Accession of Razia Sultan as Delhi Sultan.
1240: Death of Ar-Rashid of Spain; accession of his son Abu Said of Spain.
1241: Death of Razia Sultan, accession of Muiz ud din Bahram.
1242: Death of Muiz ud din Bahram, accession of Ala ud din Masud as Delhi Sultan. Death of the Almohad ruler Abdul Wahid, accession of Ali, Almohad Caliph. Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Mustansir, accession of Al-Musta'sim.
1244: The Almohad defeat the Marinids at the battle of Abu Bayash. The Marinids evacuate Morocco.
1245: The Muslims reconquer Jerusalem.
1246: Death of the Delhi Sultan Ala ud din Masud, accession of Nasir ud din Mahmud.
1248: Death of the Almohad ruler Ali, Almohad Caliph, accession of Umar, Almohad Caliph. Abu Said (??) attacks Tlemsen (??), but is ambushed and killed; accession of his son Murtada.
1250: The Marinids return to Morocco, and occupy a greatar part thereof.
1258: Battle of Baghdad (1258) - The Mongols sack Baghdad. Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Musta'sim. End of the Abbasid rule. The Mongols under Hulagu Khan establish their rule in Iran and Iraq with the capital at Maragah (???). Berek Khan the Muslim chief of the Golden Horde protests against the treatment meted out to the Abbasid Caliph and withdraws his contingent from Baghdad.
1259: Abu Abdullah the Hafsid ruler declares himself as the Caliph and assumes the name of Al Mustansir.
1260: Battle of Ayn Jalut in Syria. The Mongols are defeated by the Mamluks of Egypt, and the spell of the invincibility of the Mongols is broken. Baibars becomes the Mamluk Sultan.
1262: Death of Bahauddin Zikriya in Multan who is credited with the introduction of the Suhrawardiyya Sufi order in the IndoPakistan sub-continent.
1265: Death of Hulagu Khan. Death of Fariduddin Ganjshakar the Chishti saint of the Indo-Pakistan sub-continent.
1266: Death of Berke Khan, the first ruler of the Golden Horde to be converted to Islam. The eighth crusade: the crusaders invade Tunisia; failure of the crusade.
1267: Malik ul Salih establishes the first Muslim state of Samudra Pasai in Indonesia. Umar, Almohad Caliph seeks the help of the Christians, and the Spaniards invade Morocco. The Marinids drive away the Spaniards from Morocco. Assassination of Umar, Almohad Caliph; accession of Idris II, Almohad Caliph.
1269: Idris II, Almohad Caliph is overthrown by the Marinids, End of the Almohad. The Marinids come to power in Morocco under Abu Yaqub.
1270: Death of Mansa Wali the founder of the Muslim rule in Mali.
1272: Death of Muhammad I of Granada the founder of the state of Granada. Yaghmurason invades Morocco but meets a reverse at the battle
1273: Death of Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi.
1274: Death of Nasir al-Din Tusi. The Marinids wrest Sijilmasa from the Zayenids. Ninth crusade under Edward I of England. The crusade ends in fiasco and Edward returns to England.
1277: Death of Baibars.
1280: Battle of Hims.
1283: Death of Yaghmurasan. Accession of his son Othman.
1285: Tunisis splits in Tunis and Bougie.
1286: Death of Ghiasuddin Balban. Death of Abu Yusuf Yaqub. Bughra Khan declares his independence in Bengal under the name of Nasiruddin.
1290: End of the slave dynasty in India Jalal ud din Firuz Khilji comes into power. Othman embarks on a career of conquest and, by 1290, most of the Central Maghreb is conquered by the Zayanids.
1291: Death of Iranian poet Saadi.
1296: Mongol ruler Ghazan Khan converted to Islam.
1299: Mongols invade Syria. The Marinids besiege Tlemsen the capital of the Zayanids
Back to top
Arnold Yasin Mol
Guest





PostPosted: Wed Aug 29, 2007 4:26 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

1300s
1301: In Bengal, Ruknuddin Kaikaus, the king of Bengal, dies and is succeeded by his brother Shamsuddin Firuz.
1302: In Granada, Muhammad II dies and is succeeded by Muhammad III.
1304: In the Mongol Ilkhanate, Ghazan dies and is succeeded by his brother Khudabanda Oljeitu. In Algeria, Uthman dies and is succeeded by his son Abu Zayyan Muhammad.
1305: In the Khilji Empire, Alauddin Khilji conquers Rajputana.
1306: In the Chagatai Khanate, Duwa dies and is succeeded by his son Konchek.
1307: In Morocco, the Marinid Sultan Abu Yaqub Yusuf is assassinated; Abu Thabit accedes to the throne.
1308: In the Chagatai Khanate, Konchek is deposed and Taliku takes power. In Algeria, Abu Zayyan Muhammad and is succeeded by his brother Abu Hammu Musa. In Morocco, Abu Thabit is overthrown by Abu'l-Rabi Sulayman.
1309: In the Chagatai Khanate, Taliku is assassinated and Kebek accedes. In Granada, Muhammad III is overthrown by his uncle Abul Juyush Nasr.

[edit] 1310s
1310: In the Chagatai Khanate, Kebek is overthrown by his brother Isan Buga. In Morocco, Abu'l Rabi Sulayman is overthrown by Abu Said Uthman. In the Khiljis empire, Alauddin conquers the Deccan.
1312: In Tunisia, Abul Baqa is overthrown by Al Lihiani.
1313: The Ilkhanate invades Syria, but the Mongols are repulsed. In the Golden Horde Empire, Toktu dies and is succeeded by his nephew Uzbeg.
1314: In Kashmir, Rainchan, an adventurer from Baltistan, overthrows Sinha Deva the Raja of Kashmir. Rainchan is converted to Islam and adopts the name of Sadrud Din. In Granada, Abul Juyush is overthrown by his nephew Abul Wahid Ismail.
1315: In Tunisia, War breaks out between Bougie and Tunis; Lihani is defeated and killed. Abu Bakr becomes the ruler of Bougie and Tunis.
1316: In the Ilkhanate, Oljeitu dies and is succeeded by Abu Said. In the Khiljis Empire, Alauddin dies and Shahabuddin Umar accedes; Malik Kafur, a Hindu convert, usurps power.
1318: In the Khilji Empire, Malik Kafur is assassinated, Shahabuddin Umar is deposed, and Qutbuddin Mubarak accedes. In the Chagatai Khanate, Isan Buga is overthrown by Kebek.

[edit] 1320s
1320: In the Khilji Empire, Qutbuddin Mubarak is assassinated; Khusro Khan, a Hindu convert, usurps power. Khusro Khan is overthrown by Ghazi Malik. End of the Khilji Dynasty. In Tunisia, Abu Bakr is expelled from Tunis by Abu Imran. In the Tughluq empire, Ghazi Malik founds the Tughluq dynasty.
1321: In the Chagatai Khanate, Kebek is succeeded by Hebbishsi, who is later overthrown by Duwa Timur.
1322: In the Chagatai Khanate, Duwa Timur is overthrown by Tarmashirin, who converts to Islam. In Bengal, Shamsuddin Firuz dies. The kingdom is divided into two parts. Ghiasuddin Bahadur becomes the ruler of East Bengal with the capital at Sonargaon, Shahabuddin becomes the ruler of West Bengal with the capital at Lakhnauti.
1324: In Bengal, Shahabuddin dies and is succeeded by his brother Nasiruddin.
1325: In the Tughluq Empire, Ghazi Malik (Ghiasuddin Tughluq) dies and is succeeded by his son Muhammad Tughluq. In Granada, Abul Wahid Ismail is assassinated; he is succeeded by his son Muhammad IV, who is himself assassinated. His brother Abul Hallaj Yusuf accedes to the throne. In the Samudra Pasai empire, Malik al Tahir I dies and is succeeded by Malik al Tahir II. In Bengal, with the help of Ghiasuddin Tughluq, Nasiruddin over-throws Ghiasuddin Bahadur and unites Bengal.
1326: In the Ottoman Empire, Osman dies and is succeeded by Orhan. Orhan conquers Bursa and makes it his capital.
1327: The Ottoman Turks capture the city of Nicaea (Iznik).
1329: In the Tughluq empire, Muhammad Tughluq shifts the capital from Delhi to Daulatabad in the Deccan.

[edit] 1330s
1330: In the Chagatai Khanate, Tarmashirin dies and is succeeded by Changshahi. Amir Hussain establishes the Jalayar Dynasty at Baghdad. In Tunisia, Abu Bakr overthrows Abu Imran, and the state is again united under him. In Bengal, Muhammad bin Tughluq reverses the policy of his father and restores Ghiasuddin Bahadur to the throne of Sonargaon.
1331: In the Marinid Empire, Abu Said Othman dies and is succeeded by Abul Hasan. The Tughluqs annex Bengal.
1335: In the Ilkhanate, Abu Said dies, and Arpa Koun assumes power. In the Chagatai Khanate, Changshahi is assassinated; Burun accedes to the throne.
1336: In the Ilkhanate, Arpa is defeated and killed, and Musa succeeds him. Amir Timur is born. In the Jalayar empire, Amir Hussain dies and is succeeded by Hasan Buzurg. The Ottoman Empire annexes the state of Karesi. In Bengal, the Tughluq governor at Sonargaon is assassinated by an armour bearer, who takes power and declares his independence; he assumes the name Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah.
1337: In the Ilkhanate, Musa is overthrown, and Muhammad becomes the Sultan. In the Sarbadaran Empire, on the disintegration of the II-Khan rule, Abdur Razaq a military adventurer establishes an independent principality in Khurasan with the capital at Sabzwar. In Persia, upon the disintegration of the Ilkhanate, Mubarazud Din Muhammad establishes the Muzaffarid Empire. In the Ottoman Empire, The Ottomans capture the city of Nicomedia (Izmit). In Algeria, Algeria is occupied by Marinids.
1338: In the Ilkhanate, Muhammad is overthrown and succeeded by Sati Beg. Sati Beg marries Sulaiman who becomes the co-ruler.
1339: In Kashmir, Sadrud Din dies, and his throne is captured by a Hindu, Udyana Deva. In the Chagatai Khanate, Burun is deposed by Isun Timur. In Bengal, the Tughluq governor at Lakhnauti, Qadr Khan, is assassinated, and power is assumed by the army commander-in-chief, who declares his independence and assumes the title of Alauddin Ali Shah.

[edit] 1340s
1340: The Muzaffarid Empire conquers Kirman. In the Chagatai Khanate, Isun Timur is deposed by Muhammad.
1341: In the Golden Horde empire, Uzbeg dies and is succeeded by his son Tini Beg.
1342: In the Golden Horde empire, Tini Beg is overthrown by his brother Jani Beg.
1343: In the Chagatai Khanate, Muhammad is overthrown, and power is captured by Kazan. In Bengal, Ilyas, an officer of Alauddin, murders his patron and captures the throne of West Bengal.
1344: In the Ilkhanate, Sulaiman is deposed by Anusherwan.
1345: In the Samudra Pasai Empire, Malik al Tahir II dies and is succeeded by Tahir III. His rule lasts throughout the fourteenth century. In Bengal, llyas captures East Bengal, and under him Bengal is again united. He establishes his capital at Gaur.
1346: In the Chagatai Khanate, Kazan is deposed by Hayan Kuli. In Tunisia, Abu Bakr dies and is succeeded by his son Fadal. In Kashmir, Udyana Deva dies and the throne is taken by Shah Mirza, who assumes the name of Shah Mir and founds the Shah Mir Dynasty.
1347: The Marinids capture Tunisia. In the Bahmanid Empire, Hasan Gangu declares his independence and establishes a state in the Deccan with the capital at Gulbarga.
1349: In Kashmir, Shah Mir dies and is succeeded by his son Jamsbed. In Algeria, The Zayanids under Abu Said Othman recapture Algeria.

[edit] 1350s
1350: In the Sarbadaran Empire, a revolt erupts against Abdur Razaq. Power is captured by Amir Masud. In Tunisia, Fadal is deposed and succeeded by his brother Abu Ishaq. In Kashmir, Jamshed is overthrown by his step brother Alauddin Ali Sher.
1351: In the Marinid Empire, Abul Hasan dies, and is succeeded by Abu Inan. In the Tughluq Empire, Muhammad Tughluq dies and Firuz Shah Tughluq assumes power.
1352: The Marinids again capture Algeria. Abu Said Othman is taken captive and killed.
1353: The Ilkhanate ends. The Ottoman Empire acquires the fortress of Tympa on the European side of the Hollespoint. The Muzaffarids conquer Shiraz and establish their capital there.
1354: The Muzaffarids annex Isfahan. In Granada, Abu Hallaj Yusuf is assassinated; his son Muhammad V succeeds him.
1356: In the Jalayar Empire, Death of Hasan Buzurg, succession of his son Owaia.
1357: In the Golden Horde Empire, Death of Jani Beg, succession of Berdi Beg.
1358: In the Bahmanid Empire, Death of Hasan Gangu, accession of his son Muhammad Shah. In the Muzaffarid Empire, Death of Mubarazuddin Muhammad; accession of Shah Shuja. In the Marinid Empire, Assassination of Abu Inan, succession of Abu Bakr Said. In Bengal, Death of Ilyas, succession of his son Sikandar Shah.
1359: In the Ottoman Empire, Death of Orhan, succession of Murad I. In the Muzaffarid Empire, Shah Shuja deposed by his brother Shah Mahmud. In Tunisia, Abul Abbas a nephew of Abu Ishaq revolts and establishes his rule in Bougie. In Algeria, The Zayanids under Abu Hamuw II recapture Algeria. In the Marinid Empire, Abu Bakr Said overthrown by Abu Salim Ibrahim. In Granada, Muhammad V loses the throne in palace revolution, succeeded by Ismail. In the Golden Horde, Death of Berdi Beg, succession of Qulpa.

[edit] 1360s
1360: In the Muzaffarid Empire, Death of Shah Mahmud. Shah Shuja recaptures power. In the Chagatai Khanate, Power captured by Tughluq Timur. In Granada, Ismail overthrown by his brother-in-law Abu Said.
1361: In the Ottoman Empire, Murad I conquers a part of Thrace and establishes his capital at Edirne(Hadriaunus) in Thrace. In the Golden Horde empire, Kulpa overthrown by his brother Nauroz. In the Marinid Empire, Abu Salim Ibrahim overthrown by Abu Umar. Abu Umar overthrown by Abu Zayyan.
1362: In the Golden Horde empire, State of anarchy. During 20 years as many as 14 rulers came to the throne and made their exit. In Granada, Abu Said overthrown by Muhammad V who comes to rule for the second time. In Kashmir, Death of Alauddin Ali Sher, succeeded by his brother Shahabuddin.
1365: In the Ottoman Empire, The Turks defeat a Christian army at the battle of Maritza (Sirp Sindigi). The Byzantine ruler becomes a vassal of the Turks.
1366: In the Marinids empire, Assassination of Abu Zayyan, succession of Abu Faris Abdul Aziz.
1369: Power captured by Amir Timur. End of the rule of the Chughills. Amir Timur captures power in Transoxiana. In Tunisia, Death of Abu Ishaq. Succession of his son Abu Baqa Khalid.

[edit] 1370s
1370: In Tunisia, Abu Baqa overthrown by Abul Abbas under whom the state is reunited. In the Sarbadaran empire, Death of Amir Masud, succession of Muhammad Timur.
1371: In the Ottoman Empire, Invasion of Bulgaria, Bulgarian territory up to the Balkans annexed by the Turks.
1372: In the Marinid Empire, Death of Abu Faris, succession of Abu Muhammad.
1374: In the Marinid Empire, Abu Muhammad overthrown by Abul Abbas.
1375: In the Sarbadaran empire, Deposition of Muhammad Timur, power captured by Shamsuddin. In the Jalayar empire, Death of Owais, succession by his son Hussain.
1376: In Kashmir, Death of Shahabuddin, succeeded by his brother Qutbuddin.
1377: In the Bahmanids empire, Death of Muhammad Shah, succeeded by his son Mujahid.
1378: In the Bahmanids empire, Mujahid assassinated, throne captured by his uncle Daud.
1379: Turkomans of the Black Sheep empire, Bairam Khawaja found the independent principality of the Turkomans of the Black Sheep and established his capital at Van in Armenia. In the Bahmanids empire, Assassination of Daud; accession of Muhammad Khan.

[edit] 1380s
1380: In the Golden Horde empire, Power is captured by Tokhtamysh, a prince of the White Horde of Siberia. In Amir Timur's empire, Amir Timur crosses the Oxus and conquers Khurasan and Herat. Amir Timur invades Persia and subjugates the Muzaffarids and Mazandaran.
1381: In Amir Timur's empire, Annexation of Seestan, capture of Qandhar.
1384: In Amir Timur's empire, Conquest of Astrabad, Mazandaran, Rayy and Sultaniyah. In the Muzaffarids empire, Death of Shah Shuja, accession of his son Zainul Abdin. In the Marinid Empire, Abul Abbas overthrown by Mustansir. Turkomans of the Black Sheep empire, Death of Bairam Khawaja, succession of Qara Muhammad.
1386: In Amir Timur's empire, Annexation of Azarbaijan, Georgea overrun. Subjugation of Gilan and Shirvan. Turkomans of the Black Sheep defeated. In the Marinid Empire, Death of Mustansir, succession of Muhammad.
1387: In the Marinid Empire, Muhammad overthrown by Abul Abbas who comes to power for the second time.
1388: In Algeria, Death of Abu Hamuw II, succession of Abu Tashfin. In the Tughluqs empire, Death of Firuz Shah Tughluq, succeeded by his grandson Ghiasuddin Tughluq II.
1389: In the Muzaffarid Empire, Death of the poet Hafez Shirazi. In the Tughluqs empire, Death of Ghiasuddin Tughluq II, accession: of Abu Bakr Tughluq Shah. Turkomans of the Black Sheep empire, Death of Qara Muhammad. succession of Qara Yusuf. In Ottoman Empire Murad I fought the Battle of Kosovo against Christian army from Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia, Hungary and Wallachia. Murad I was assassinated at the end of this battle and Yildirim Beyazid I became the new Sultan.

[edit] 1390s
1390: In the Tughluqs empire, Abu Bakr overthrow by Nasiruddin Tughluq. In Bengal, Death of Sikandar Shah, accession of his son Ghiasud. In the Burji Mamluks empire, The rule of the Burji Mamluks rounded by Saifuddin Barquq.
1391: In Amir Timur's empire, Annexation of Fars. In the Muzaffarid Empire, Annexation of the Muzaffarids by Amir Timur. In Granada, Death of Muhammad V, succession of his son Abu Hallaj Yusuf II.
1392: In the Jalayar empire, Death of Hussain, succession of his son Ahmad. In Granada, Death of Abu Hallaj; succession of Muhammad VI.
1393: Amir Timur defeats Tiktomish, the ruler of the Golden Horde. Capture of the Jalayar dominions by Amir Timur. In the Marinid Empire, Death of Abul Abbas; succession of Abu Faris II.
1394: Amir Timur defeats the Duke of Moscow. In the Tughluqs empire, Death of Nasiruddin Tugluq, accession of Alauddin Sikandar Shah. In Kashmir, Death of Qutbuddin. Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Qara Othman established the rule of the White Sheep Turkomans in Diyarbekr.
1395: In the Golden Horde empire, Amir Timur defeated Toktamish and razes Serai to the ground. End of the rule of the Golden Horde. Annexation of Iraq by Amir Timur. In the Tughluqs empire, Death of Sikandar Shah. Accession of Muhammad Shah.
1396: In the Amir Timur's empire, Destruction of Sarai, and of the rule of the Golden Horde. In the Sarbadaran empire, Principality annexed by Amir Timur. In Ottoman Empire Sultan Yildirim Beyazid I at the Battle of Nicopoli defeated an army of Christian Crusaders.
1397: In the Bahmanids empire, Death of Muhammad Khan.
1398: In the Amir Timur's empire, Campaign in India. In the Marinid Empire, Death of Abu Faris II. In the Tughluqs empire, Invasion of Amir Timur, Mahmud Shah escapes from the capital. In Morocco, Death of the Marinid Sultan Abu Faris II; succession of his son Abu Said Othman.
1399: In the Amir Timur's empire, Campaign in Iraq and Syria. In the Burji Mamluks empire, Death of Saifuddin Barquq, succession of his son Nasiruddin in Faraj.
Back to top
Arnold Yasin Mol
Guest





PostPosted: Wed Aug 29, 2007 4:26 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

1400–1409
1400: In the Burji Mamluks Empire, the Mamluks lost Syria which was occupied by Timur the Lame.
1401: In the Golden Horde Empire, death of Timur Qutlugh, the ruler, installed by Timur the Lame. Accession of Shadi Beg.
1402: In the Ottoman Empire, defeat of Beyazid I at the Battle of Ankara, taken captive by Timur the Lame.
1403: In the Ottoman Empire, an Interregnum period starts with sons of Beyazid I Isa, Musa, Suleyman, Mehmed fighting among themselves for the Ottoman throne.
1405: In the Timurid Empire, Timur the Lame died and was succeeded by his son Shah Rukh.
1407: In the Golden Horde Empire, Shadi Beg was deposed, Pulad Khan was installed by the king maker Edigu.

[edit] 1410–1419
1410: In the Golden Horde Empire, Pulad Khan was deposed, Timur was installed.
1412: In the Golden Horde Empire, Timur was deposed, Jalal ad-Din khan was installed. In the Burji Mamluks Empire, Nasiruddin Faraj died and was succeeded by Al Muayyad.
1413: In the Golden Horde Empire, Jalal ad-Din khan was deposed, Karim Berdi was installed. In Ottoman Empire end of Interregnum and single rule by Mehmed I begins after the defeats of all his brothers.
1414: In the Golden Horde Empire, Karim Berdi was deposed, Kebek Khan was installed.
1416: In the Golden Horde Empire, Kebek Khan was deposed, Jahar Balrawi was installed. Jahar Balrawi was deposed, Chaighray was installed.
1419: In the Golden Horde Empire, Edigu died then Chaighray was overthrown, Olug Moxammat took power.

[edit] 1420–1429
1420: In the Golden Horde Empire, Olug Moxammat was overthrown by Daulat Bairawi. Turkomans of the Black Sheep Empire, death of Qara Yusuf; succession of his son Qara Iskandar. In Morocco, assassination of Abu Said Othman; succession of his infant son Abdul Haq.
1421: In the Ottoman Empire, Mehmed I died; accession of his son Murad II. In the Burji Mamluks Empire, Al Muayyad died, succession of Muzaffar Ahmad. Muzaffar Ahmad was overthrown by Amir Saifuddin Tata, Saifuddin Tata died, succession of his son Muhammad. Muhammad was overthrown by Amir Barsbay.
1424: In the Golden Horde Empire, Daulat Bairawi died, succession of Berk. The Hafsida of Tunisia occupied Algeria. This state of affairs continued throughout the fifteenth century.
1425: In the Uzbeks Empire, Abul Khayr, a prince of the house of Uzbeg declared his independence in the western part of Siberia.
1427: In the Golden Horde Empire, Berk was overthrown by Olug Moxammat who took power for the second time.

[edit] 1430–1440
1430: In the Uzbeks Empire, Abul Khayr occupied Khwarezmia.
1434: Turkomans of the Black Sheep Empire, Qara Iskandar was deposed; his brother Jahan Shah was installed. Turkomans of the White Sheep Empire, death of Kara Osman, succession of his son Ali Beg. In Tunisia, Abul Faris died after a rule of forty years, succession of his son Abu Abdullah Muhammad.
1435: In Tunisia, Abu Abdullah Muhammad was deposed, Abu Umar Othman took power.
1438: In the Burji Mamluks Empire, Barsbay died, accession of his minor son Jamaluddin Yusuf; Yusuf was overthrown and the Chief Minister Saifuddin Gakmuk took power. Turkomans of the White Sheep Empire, Ali Beg was overthrown by his brother Hamza.
1439: In the Golden Horde Empire, Olug Moxammat withdrew from Sarai and founded the principality of Qazan. Said Ahmad I came to power in Sarai.

[edit] 1440–1449
1440: Turkomans of the White Sheep Empire, Hamzawas overthrown by Jahangir, a son of Ali Beg.
1441: In the Golden Horde Empire, Crimea seceded from Sarai.
1444: Rise of the anti-Ottoman League of Lezhe in Albania formed by the Albanian prince Scanderbeg in a revolt against the Ottomans. In the Ottoman Empire: Murad II voluntarily abdicated from his throne in favour of his son Mehmed II. At Battle of Varna a Christian Crusading army defeated by an army led by old sultan Murad II.
1446: In the Timurid Empire, Shah Rukh died, succession of Ulugh Beg. In the Ottoman Empire: Murad II again took over the throne from which he had abdicated before.
1447: In the Golden Horde Empire, Astra Khan seceded from Sarai.
1448: In the Ottoman Empire: the Second Battle of Kossova resulted in the victory of the Turks. Serbia was annexed to Ottomans and Bosnia became its vassal.
1449: In the Uzbeks Empire, Abul Khayr captured Farghana. In the Timurid Empire, Ulugh Beg died, succession of 'Abd al-Latif.

[edit] 1450–1459
1450: In the Timurid Empire, assassination of 'Abd al-Latif, accession of Abu Sa'id.
1451: In the Ottoman Empire, Murad II died; accession of his son Mehmed II.
1453: In the Ottoman Empire, Constantinople (Istanbul) was captured by the Turks. Turkomans of the White Sheep Empire, Jahangir died; accession of his son Uzun Hassan. In the Burji Mamluks Empire, Gakmuk died. He was succeeded by his son Fakhruddin Othman. Othman was overthrown by the Mamluk general Saifuddin Inal.
1454: In the Ottoman Empire, attack against Wallachia, Wallachia became a vassal state of Turkey.
1456: In the Ottoman Empire, annexation of Serbia.

[edit] 1460–1469
1461: In the Ottoman Empire, annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In the Burji Mamluks Empire, Saifuddin Inal died and was succeeded by his son Shahabuddin Ahmad. Shahabuddin Ahmad was overthrown by the Mamluk general Saifuddin Khushqadam.
1462: In the Ottoman Empire, Annexation of Albania.
1465: In the Golden Horde Empire, Said Ahmad I died and was succeeded by his son Akhmat Khan. In Morocco, assassination of Abdul Haq. End of the Marinid rule. Sharif Muhammad al Jati took power.
1467: Turkomans of the Black Sheep Empire, Jahan Shah died, end of the rule of the Black Sheep Turkoman rule. Turkomans of the White Sheep Empire, Jahan Shah of the Black Sheep attacked the White Sheep. Jahan Shah was defeated and the Black Sheep territories annexed by the White Sheep. In the Burji Mamluks Empire, Khushqadam died, accession of his son Saifuddin Yel Bey. Yel Bey was deposed, the Mamluk general Temur Bugha took power.
1468: In the Uzbeks Empire, Abul Khayr died and was succeeded by his son Haidar Sultan. Turkomans of the White Sheep Empire, Uzun Hassan defeated the Timurids at the Battle of Qarabagh whereby the White Sheep became the masters of Persia and Khorasan. In the Burji Mamluks Empire, Temur Bugha was deposed, the Mamluk general Qaitbay took power.
1469: In the Timurid Empire, Abu Sa'id died, disintegration of the Timurid state. In Khorasan, Husayn Bayqarah came to power and he ruled during the remaining years of the fifteenth century.

[edit] 1470–1479
1472: In Morocco, Sharif Muhammad al Jati was overthrown by the Wattisid chief Muhammad al Shaikh who established the rule of the Wattisid Dynasty.
1473: In the Ottoman Empire: War against White Sheep Empire. Defeat by army of Mehmed II of Akkoyunlu Sultan Uzun Hasan at Battle of Otluk Beli.
1475: In the Ottoman Empire: Conquest of Crimea and creation of the vassal state of Khanate of Crimea. War against Venice. The Ottoman Empire became the master of the Aegean Sea.
1478: Turkomans of the White Sheep Empire, Uzun Hasan died and was succeeded by his son Khalil.
1479: Turkomans of the White Sheep Empire, Khalil was overthrown by his uncle Yaqub.

[edit] 1480–1489
1480: In the Golden Horde Empire, assassination of Akhmat Khan, succession of his son Said Ahmad II.
1481: In the Golden Horde Empire, Said Ahmad I1 was overthrown by his brother Murtada. In the Ottoman Empire, Mehmed II died, accession of Beyazid II. His brother Cem Sultan rebels.
1488: In the Uzbeks Empire, Haider Sultan died and was succeeded by his nephew Shaybani Khan. In Tunisia, Abu Umar Othman died after a rule of 52 years and was succeeded by Abu Zikriya Yahya.
1489: In Tunisia, Abu Zikriya Yahya was overthrown by Abul Mumin.

[edit] 1490–1500
1490: In Tunisia, Abul Mumin was overthrown, Abu Zikriya Yahya took power again.
1492: Granada, the last Muslim stronghold in Spain, falls to the Castilans, ending over 800 years of Muslim rule in Spain.
1493: Turkomans of the White Sheep Empire, Yaqub died, accession of his son Bayangir.
1495: Turkomans of the White Sheep Empire, Bayangir was overthown by his cousin Rustam.
1496: In the Burji Mamluks Empire, Qaitbay abdicated and was succeeded by his son Nasir Muhammad.
1497: Turkomans of the White Sheep Empire, Rustam was overthrown by Ahmad. Anarchy and fragmentation followed.
1498: In the Burji Mamluks Empire, Nasir Muhammad was deposed, Zahir Kanauh took power.
1499: In the Uzbeks Empire, Shayhani Khan conquered Transoxiana. In the Golden Horde Empire, Murtada died and was succeeded by Said Ahmad III. In the Ottoman Empire, the Ottoman fleet defeated the Venetians in the Battle of Lepanto.
1500: In the Burji Mamluks empire, Zahir Kanauh overthrown by Ashraf Gan Balat.
Back to top
Arnold Yasin Mol
Guest





PostPosted: Wed Aug 29, 2007 4:27 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

1501: Ismail I establishes the Safavid dynasty in Persia and the Twelve-Imam Shi'ism becomes the state religion.
1502: Final destruction of the Golden Horde by Menli I Giray of Crimea.
1507: The Portuguese under Alfonso d'Albuquerque establish strongholds in the Persian Gulf.
1508: End of the Turkoman's White Sheep dynasty and the annexation of their territories by the Safavids.
1511: D'Albuquerque conquers Malacca from the Muslims.
1514: The Ottoman Sultan Selim I ("the Grim") defeats the Safavids, Ismail I, Battle of Chaldiran.
1516: The Ottoman Sultan Selim I ("the Grim") defeats the Mamluks at the Battle of Merc-i Dabik with the MamlukSultan Kansu Gavri killed in this battle and conquers Syria at last by defeating the Mamluk at Khan Yunus Battle.
1517: The Ottoman army crosses the Sinai Dessert, defeats the new Mamluk Sultan Tomanbai at the Battle of Ridaniye and Battle of Cairo and conquers Egypt. THe Sharif Of Mecca presented keys of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina to Selim I and was declared the hereditary ruler of the vassal state there. Al-Mutawakkil, the last Abbasid caliph at Cairo, formally surrenders the title of caliph to Selim I.
1520: In Ottoman Empire Selim I dies and the reign of Suleiman I, the Magnificent begins.
1521: In Ottoman Empire Suleiman I conquers Belgrade.
1522: In Ottoman Empire Suleiman I conquers the Island of Rhodes and the rule of piratical Knights Hospitallers is ended.
1526: In Ottoman Empire Suleiman I defeats the Hungarian army at the Battle of Mohacs and Louis of Hungary dies at this battle. Buda and Pest are taken by Ottomans and Hungary is declares a vassal state of Ottoman Empire. The Battle of Panipat in India, and the Moghul conquest; Babur makes his capital at Delhi and Agra.
1528: The Ottomans retake Buda in Hungary.
1529: Unsuccessful Ottoman siege of Vienna.
1534: In Ottoman Empire Suleiman I conducts a military campaign against Safavid Shah Tahsmab and conquers the castles of Van and Baghdad and the city of Tabriz.
1533: The corsair Ruler of Algeria Barbarossa Khayreddin brings his fleet to Istanbul and is appointed the Admiral of the Ottoman fleet and the governor of the vassal state of Algeria.
1538: The Ottoman Navy under the command of Barbarossa Khayreddin wins a naval victory against a combined Christian fleet at the Battle of Preveza.
1550: The architect Sinan builds the Suleiman Mosque in Istanbul. The rise of the Muslim kingdom of Aceh in Sumatra. Islam spreads to Java, the Maluku Islands, and Borneo.
1565: Knights Hospitaller protect Malta from control by Ottoman forces.
1566: Ottoman naval forces gain control of Aegean Islands, such as Chios and many islands under Venetian rule until then are taken over by the Ottoman forces.
1566: The death of Suleiman I the Magnificent. Selim II becomes the Ottoman Sultan.
1568: Alpujarra uprising of the Moriscos (Muslims forcibly converted to Catholicism) in Spain.
1571: The Ottomans are defeated at the naval Battle of Lepanto, and their dominance in the Mediterranean is brought to a close.
1578: The Battle of Alcazarquivir at Alcazarquivir in Morocco. King Sebastian of Portugal is killed.
1588: Reign of Abbas I of Safavid begins.
1591: Mustaali Ismailis split into Sulaymanis and Daudis.
1600: Sind annexed by the Mughals. End of the Arghun rule in Sindh.
Back to top
Arnold Yasin Mol
Guest





PostPosted: Wed Aug 29, 2007 4:27 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

1601: Khandesh annexed by the Mughals.
1603: Battle of Urmiyah. The Ottoman Empire suffers defeat. Persia occupies Tabriz, Mesopotamia. Mosul and Diyarbekr. Death of Mehmed III, accession of Ahmed I; see Sultans of the Ottoman Empire .
1604: In Dutch Indonesia, death of Alauddin Rayat Shah, Sultan of Acheh, accession of Ali Rayat Shah III.
1605: Death of the Mughal emperor Jalal-ud-Din Akbar; accession of Jahangir.
1607: Annexation of Ahmadnagar by the Mughals.
1609: Annexation of Bidar by the Mughals.
1611: Kuch Behar subjugated by the Mughals.
1612: Kamrup annexed by the Mughals.
1617: Death of Ahmed I; accession of Mustafa I; see Sultans of the Ottoman Empire. British East India Company begins trading with Mughal India.
1618: Tipperah annexed by the Mughals.
1620: In Ottoman Empire, deposition of Mustafa; accession of Osman II, see Sultans of the Ottoman Empire.
1623: In Ottoman Empire, Mustafa recaptured power.
1625: In Ottoman Empire, deposition of Mustafa, accession of Murad IV, see Sultan of the Ottoman Empire.
1627: Death of the Mughal emperor Jahangir, accession of Shah Jahan.
1628: Reign of Safavid Sultan Shah Abbas I comes to an end.
1629: In Persia, death of Shah Abbas; accession of grandson Safi.
1631: Death of Mumtaz Mahal, wife of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan and the lady of Taj Mahal, Agra.
1635: Military campaign of Ottoman Sultan Murad IV against [Iran] and conquest of Erivan castle. Conquest of the castles of Maku, Hoy and Tabriz and destruction of their walls. .
1637: Death of Iskandar Muda in Indonesia; accession of Iskandar II.
1638: In Ottoman, military campaign of Sultan Murad IV against [Iran] and conquest of Baghdad after a siege.
1640: Death of Ottoman Sultan Murad IV, accession of his brother Ibrahim I, see Sultans of the Ottoman Empire.
1641: Ottoman vassal state of Khanate of Crimea capture Azov. In Indonesia, death of Iskandar II; accession of the Queen Tajul Alam.
1642: In Persia, death of Shah Safi, accession of Shah Abbas II.
1645: Start of the long-lasting Ottoman-Venetian War for the island of Crete by the landing of the Ottoman forces there and the conquest of the castle of Khania.
1648: In Ottoman Empire, Ibrahim I deposed; accession of Mehmed IV; see Sultans of the Ottoman Empire.
1656: In Ottoman Empire Mehmed Kuiprilli appointed the Grand Vizier with special powers.
1658: Deposition of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan, accession of Aurangzeb.
1661: Death of Grand Vizier of OttomansMehmed Kuiprilli and appointment as the Grand Vizier of his son Ahmed Kuiprilli.
1667: Death of Shah Abbas II; accession of Shah Suleiman.
1668: Conquest of the castle of Candia by the Ottomans concludes the long-lasting Ottoman-Venetian War on the island of Crete.
1673: The Badshahi Masjid was constructed by Aurangzeb in Lahore, Pakistan.
1675: Execution of the Sikh Guru Tegh Bahadur. In Indonesia death of the queen Tajul Alam, accession of the queen Nur ul Alam.
1676: Death of the Grand Vizier of Ottomans Ahmad Kuiprilli, appointment of Kara Mustafa.
1678: In Indonesia, death of the queen Nur ul Alam, accession of the queen Inayat Zakia.
1680: Death of Marhatta chieftain Shivaji.
1682: Assam annexed by the Mughals. Aurangzeb shifts the capital to Aurangabad in the Deccan.
1683: The Ottomans put Vienna under siege and are defeated in the Battle of Vienna, marking the end of the Turkish advance into Europe. Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa is executed for the failure of the expedition.
1686: Annexation of Bijapur by the Mughals.
1687: Golkunda annexed by the Mughals. Defeat of the Ottomans by Austria at Second Battle of Mohacs. Deposition of Mehmed IV; accession of Suleyman II; see Sultans of the Ottoman Empire
1688: In Indonesia, death of Queen Inayat Zakia, accession of the queen Kamalah.
1691: Death of the Ottomans Sultan Suleyman II; accession of Ahmed II, see Sultans of the Ottoman Empire.
1692: Death of the Ottomans Sultan Ahmed II; accession of Mustafa II; see Sultans of the Ottoman Empire.
1694: In Persia, death of Shah Safi, accession of Shah Hussain.
1699: In Indonesia death of Queen Kamalah.
1700: Murshid Quli Jafar Khan declares the independence of Bengal and establishes his capital at Murshidabad.
Back to top
Arnold Yasin Mol
Guest





PostPosted: Wed Aug 29, 2007 4:28 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

1703: In Ottoman Empire Ahmed III becomes the Sultan. Birth of Shah Wali Ullah. Birth of the religious reformer Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab.
1707: Death of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, accession of his son Bahadur Shah.
1711: War between Ottoman Empire and Russia (Russo-Turkish War, 1710-1711). Russia defeated at the Battle of Pruth and Treaty of Pruth signed.
1712: Death of the Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah I, accession of Jahandar Shah.
1713: Jahandar Shah overthrown by his nephew Furrukhsiyar.
1715: In Ottoman Empire the peninsula of Morea and other Adriatic fortresses that had been ceded to Venetian Republic are reconquered.
1716: Defeat of Ottoman Empire armies by the Austrians under Prince Eugene of Savoy at Battle of Peterwardein and loss of strategic fortress of Temesvar.
1718: In the war against Austria, Ottoman Empire suffers continuing defeat and loss of fortress of Belgrade. By the Treaty of Passarowitz, Ottomans lost Hungary.
1719: Deposition of the Mughal emperor Furrukhsiyar. Muhammad Shah ascends the throne. In Sind, the Kalhoras came to power under Nur Muhammad Kalhora. In Ottoman Empire start of a long-period of peace, enlightenment and prosperity that was later named the Tulip Era.
1722: Saadat Khan found the independent state of Oudh. Battle of Gulnabad between the Afghans and the Persians. The Persians were defeated and the Afghans under Shah Mahmud became the masters of a greater part of Persia. Shah Hussain taken captive, accession of Shah Tahmasp II.
1730: Zanzibar freed from Portuguese rule and occupied by Oreart. In Ottoman Empire Sultan Ahmed III is deposed by Patrona Insurrection which ends the Tulip Era. Mahmud I ascends the throne.
1735: Start of war between Ottoman Empire and Russia (Russo–Turkish War, 1735–1739).
1737: Entry of Austria into (Russo-Turkish War, 1735-1739) against Ottoman Empire.
1739: Persian ruler Nadir Shah sacks the Mughal capital of Delhi in India. In Ottoman Empire Austria signs the separate Belgrad Treaty and Russia signs the Treaty of Nissa to end Russo-Turkish War, 1735-1739
1747: Ahmed Shah Abdali established Afghan rule in Afghanistan.
1752: Death of Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai, writer of Sassi Pannu, Sohni Mahinwal and Umer Marvo. Ahmed Shah Durrani captured Punjab, Kashmir and Sind.
1754: In Ottoman Empire death of Mahmud I and accession of Osman III.
1757: In Ottoman Empire death of Osman III and accession of Mustafa III.
1761: Death of Shah Waliullah Dehlavi. Battle of Panipat. Ahmed Shah Abdali came to India at the invitation of Shah Waliullah Dehlavi and smashed rising Maratha empire power in the Third Battle of Panipat.
1764: Conversion to Islam of Areadi Gaya, ruler of Futa Bandu State in West Sudan.
1768: Start of the war between Ottoman Empire-Russia (Russo–Turkish War, 1768–1774) and defeats of Ottoman land armies at various battles.
1770: Burning of the Ottoman fleet at Naval Battle of Chesma by a Russian fleet that has come from Baltic Sea.
1771: Conquest of Crimea by Russian forces and the end of Ottoman dominance over Khanate of Crimea.
1773: Death of Ahmed Shah Abdali.
1774: In Ottoman Empire death of Mustafa III and accession of Abdulhamid I. Defeat of the Ottoman armies by Russians. Signing of the Treaty of Kuçuk Kainarji to end the Ottoman-Russian war (Russo–Turkish War of 1768–1774). Khanate of Crimea nominally gained independence but in fact became a dependency of Russia.
1779: Signing of Aynalikavak Accord between Ottoman Empire and Russia.
1783: End of Kalhora rule in Sind. Russia occupies and annexes Crimea and ends the rule of Khanate of Crimea.
1787: In Ottoman Empire start of war against Austria and Russia (Russo–Turkish War (1787–1792)). Death of Sultan Abdulhamid I and accession of Selim III.
1791: Signing of the Treaty of Sistova that ends the war between Austria and Ottoman Empire.
1792: War between Ottoman Empire and Russia (Russo–Turkish War (1787–1792)) ends with signing of the Treaty of Jassy.
1797: Death of Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar, the Shah of Persia. Russia occupied Daghestan.
1798: Landing of the armies of French Republic under the command of Napoleon Bonaparte in Ottoman Province of Egypt. Defeat of the Ottoman provincial army of Mamluks at Battle of Pyramids. Defeat and burning of French Fleet at naval Battle of Aboukir by the British fleet under Admiral Lord Nelson. Alliance of Ottoman Empire - Great Britain - Russia against France.
1799: Defeat of the French expeditionary force from Egypt under Napoleon Bonaparte at Siege of Acre by the Ottoman defenders and retreat of the French back to Egypt. Ranjit Singh declared himself Maharajah of Punjab defeating Afghans. Khoqand declared independent Islamic State. Death of Tipu Sultan, the ruler of Kingdom of Mysore in India.
Back to top
Arnold Yasin Mol
Guest





PostPosted: Wed Aug 29, 2007 4:28 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

1803: Shah Abdul Aziz bin Muhammad bin Saud assassinated by a Shi'a fanatic. Shah Shuja proclaimed as King of Afghanistan.
1805: Saud bin Abdul Aziz captured Medina defeating the Ottoman Empire garrison.
1804: Othman dan Fodio established Islamic State of Sokoto in Central Sudan.
1805: Faraizi movement launched in Bengal. Muhammad Ali appointed Pasha of Egypt by the Ottoman Empire.
1806: Khanate of Khiva came into limelight under the rule of Muhammad Rahim Khan.
1807: Darqawi sect revolted against Turkish domination. Tunisia repudiated suzerainty of Algeria.
1811: Birth of Siyyid Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad known as the Báb, founder of Bábí movement. British occupied Indonesia.
1812: Medina fell to Egyptians.
1813: Mecca and Taif captured by Egyptian forces and Saudis expelled from Hejaz.
1814: Iran executed treaty of alliance with the British known as the Definitive Treaty. Death of Saud bin Abdul Aziz. King Othman of Tunisia assassinated by his cousin Mahmud.
1816: British withdrew from Indonesia restoring it to the Dutch.
1817: Birth Of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan.
1822: Death of Maulay Ismail in Morocco.
1827: Malaya became a preserve of the British according to Anglo-Netherland treaty in 1824.
1828: Russia declared war against Ottoman Empire.
1829: Treaty of Adrianople.
1830: French forces landed near Algiers and occupied Algeria ending 313 years rule of Turks.
1831: Syed Ahmad Barelvi and Shah Ismail leaders of Jihad movement in India fell fighting the Sikhs in Balakot.
1832: Turks defeated in the battle of Konya by Egyptian forces. Sayyid Said, King of Oman, shifted his capital to Zanzibar.
1834: Abdul Qadir of Algeria recognised as ruler of the area under his control by the French.
1839: Defeat of Ottoman Empire by the Egyptians in the battle of Nisibin.
1840: Quadruple Alliance by the European powers to force Egypt to relinquish Syria. British free occupied Aden.
1841: State of Adamawa established by Adams adjacent to Nigeria.
1842: Amir Abdul Qadir, ousted from Algeria by the French. He crossed over to Morocco. Shah Shuja assassinated ending the Durrani rule in Afghanistan.
1847: Amir Abdul Qadir surrendred to France under the condition of safe conduct to a Muslim country of his choice, but France violated its pledge and sent him as a captive to France.
1849: Death of Muhammad Ali of Egypt.
1850: The Báb is executed by the Persian government. Táhirih, a renowned poetess and staunch advocate of Bábism also executed.
1852: Release of Amir Abdul Qadir by Napoleon III. He settled in Ottoman Empire.
1857: British captured Delhi and eliminated Mughal rule in India after 332 years. Last Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar was exiled to Rangoon in Burma. This was also the end of 1000 years of Muslim rule over India.
1859: Imam Shamil laid down arms before Russian forces and the Islamic State of Dagestan became a Russian province.
1860: Maulay Muhammad defeated by Spain.
1861: Death of Sultan Abd-ul-Mejid I of the Ottoman Empire. Overthrow of the Bambara Empire by the Toucouleur Empire.
1862: Faraizi movement fizzled out after the death of Dadu Miyan. Overthrow of the Massina Empire by the Toucouleur Empire.
1865: Khanate of Kokand liquidated by Russia.
1869: Jamal al-Din al-Afghani exiled from Afghanistan. He proceeded to Egypt.
1871: Tunisia recognised suzerainty of Ottoman Empire through a Firman.
1873: Emirate of Bukhara and Khanate of Khiva made protectorates by Russia.
1876: Britain purchased shares of Khediv Ismail in the Suez canal and got involved in Egyptian affairs.
1878: Ottoman handed over Cyprus to Britain.
1878: Adrianople fell to Russia.
1879: Jamal al-Din al-Afghani exiled from Egypt. Treaty of Berlin. Ottoman lost 4/5 th of its territory in Europe.
1881: France invaded Tunisia and the Bey acknowledged supremacy of France as a result of the treaty of Bardo. Muhammad Ahmad declared himself Mahdi in northern Sudan.
1882: Egypt came under British military occupation.
1883: Death of Amir Abdul Qadir in Damascus.
1885: Muhammad Ahmad declared free Government of Sudan under his rule. Death of Mahdi Sudani five months after the occupation of Khartoum.
1890: End of the Toucouleur Empire.
1895: Afghanistan got Wakhan Corridor by an understanding with Russia and British India making Afghan border touch China. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian claimed prophethood.
1897: State of Bagirimi occupied by the French.
1899: Fall of Muhammad Ahmad's Mahdi State occupied by the British and the Egyptians jointly.
Back to top
Arnold Yasin Mol
Guest





PostPosted: Wed Aug 29, 2007 4:28 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

1901:Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud captures Riyadh. French forces occupy Morocco.
1902: Birth of Ruhollah Khomeini, The leader of Islamic revolution and the founder of Islamic Republic of Iran.
1904: Morocco becomes a French protectorate under the Algeciras Conference. The Presian constitution is promoted.
1905: The beginning of the Salafiyyah movement in Paris with its main sphere of influence in Egypt.
1907: The beginning of the Young Turks movement in Turkey.
1912: The beginning of the Muhammadiyyah reform movement in Indonesia.
1914: Under Ottoman rule, secret Arab nationalist societies are formed. World War I begins. The Ottoman Empire enters the war allied with Germany.
1916: Arab revolt against Ottoman (Turkish) rule. Lawrence of Arabia leads attacks on the Hejaz Railway.
1917: Britain issues the then-secret Balfour Declaration pledging British support for the creation of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine.
1918: After losing virtually their entire empire, the Ottomans capitulate on October 19 and sign the Armistice of Mudros with the Allies on October 30. World War I ends on November 11. Syria becomes a French protectorate.
1920: Ottoman Sultan Mehmed VI signs the Treaty of Sèvres, reducing the Empire to a fraction of its previous size and allowing for the indefinite presence of Allied forces in Turkey. The treaty is rejected by nationalist leaders, who vow to block its implementation. Emirate of Bukhara and Khanate of Khiva conquered by Bolshevik Russia.
1920-1922: Turkish War of Independence.
1921: Abdullah I of Jordan in made King of Transjordan. His father was the Sharif of Mecca. Faisal I of Iraq is made King of Iraq. His father was the Sharif of Mecca. Abd al-Karim leads a revolt against colonial rule in Moroccan Rif, and declares the "Republic of the Rif".
1922: Turkish nationalists under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal seize control of Turkey and abolish the Ottoman Sultanate, prompting Sultan Mehmed VI to flee Turkey; the 600 year-old Ottoman Empire officially ceases to exist.
1923: Mustafa Kemal secures Allied recognition of Turkey's independence in the Treaty of Lausanne and subsequently declares the Republic of Turkey. The Turkish capitol is officially shifted to Ankara.
1924: The Turkish Grand National Assembly abolishes the Ottoman Caliphate and sends the remaining members of the Ottoman House into exile. King Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud conquers Mecca and Medina, leading to the unification of the Kingdoms of Najd and Hejaz.
1925: Reza Khan seizes the government in Persia and establishes the Pahlavi dynasty.
1926: Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud assumes title of King of Najd and Hejaz.
1927: Death of Zaghlul, an Egyptian nationalist leader.
1928: Turkey is declared a secular state. Hasan al-Banna founds the Muslim Brotherhood, an Islamist movement dedicated to social, political, and moral reform in Egypt. The movement would later spread to other Arab nations and to Pakistan.
1932: Iraq granted independence by League of Nations.
1934: War between King Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud and Imam Yahya of the Yemen. Peace treaty of Taif. Asir becomes part of Saudi Arabia.
1935: Iran becomes the official name of Persia.
1936: Increased Jewish immigration leads to an Arab revolt in Palestine in the Great Uprising.
1939: World War II.
1941: British and Russian forces invade Iran and Reza Shah is forced to abdicate in favor of his son Mohammad Reza Shah in Iran. Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi founds Jamaat-e-Islami, the Muslim Brotherhood's South Asian counterpart.
1945: End of World War II. Indonesia declares independence from The Netherlands
1946: Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria are granted independence from Britain and France.
1947: India gains independence from Britain, and Pakistan is created from the region's Muslim-majority areas under the Leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Disputes over the status of Kashmir leads to the first Indo-Pakistani War; Kashmir is divided between India and Pakistan.
1948: Arab countries attack the new state of Israel and suffer defeat in war with Israel. Hundreds of thousands of Palestinians are displaced.
1949: Hasan al-Banna, leader of the Muslim Brotherhood, is assassinated by Egyptian security forces. EastTurkestan Occupied by Chinese communist and gave it new name of Xinjiang.
1951: Libya becomes independent.
1952: King Faruq of Egypt forced to abdicate.
1953: Backed by American and British intelligence agencies, General Zahedi leads a coup against Mohammed Mossadegh, returning the Shah to power. Death of King Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia. The foundation stone is laid to enlarge the Prophet's mosque in Medina.
1954: Algerian War of Independence begins.
1956: Morocco becomes independent. Tunisia becomes independent.
1957: The Bey of Tunisia is deposed, and Bourguiba becomes president. Enlargement of the Haram in Mecca begins. The Federation of Malaya, later renamed Malaysia, gains independence from Britain.
1958: October 7, President Iskander Mirza declares Martial Law. General Ayub Khan assumes the powers as Chief Martial Law Administrator.
1960: Mali and Senegal become independent.
1962: Algeria becomes independent. Death of Zaydi Imam of Yemen (Ahmad). Crown Prince Bahr succeeds him and takes the title Imam Mansur Bi-Llah Muhammad.
1965: American Muslim leader Malcolm X is assassinated. The second Indo-Pakistani War results in a stalemate. Malaysia grants independence to Singapore.
1967: In the Six-Day War between Israel and Egypt, Syria and Jordan, Israel seizes control of Jerusalem, the West Bank, Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, and the Golan Heights. More Palestinians are displaced.
1968: The enlargement of the Haram in Mecca is completed. Israel begins building Jewish settlements in territories occupied during the Six-day war.
1969: King Idris of Libya is ousted by a coup led by Colonel Qadhdhafi.
1971: Bengalis in East Pakistan under the leadership of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman begin campaigning for independence from West Pakistan, prompting a heavy-handed military reprisal from Pakistani forces. India enters the conflict, causing the third Indo-Pakistani War which culminates in the creation of Bangladesh.
1972: During the Summer Olympic Games in Munich, West Germany, eleven members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage by Palestinian terrorist group Black September in what is known as the Munich massacre.
1973: King Zahir Shah of Afghanistan is overthrown. Yom Kippur War, also known as 1973 Arab-Israeli War, leads to recapture of Sinai peninsula and Golan Heights by Egypt and Syria from Israel.
1975: Indonesia invades and occupies East Timor. King Faisal of Saudi Arabia is assassinated by his half-brother's son Faisal bin Musa'id. Death of Elijah Muhammad, leader of Nation of Islam among African Americans in North America. Warith Deen Muhammad assumes leadership of Nation of Islam and shifts movement toward Islamic Orthodoxy, renaming it American Muslim Mission.
1978: Imam Musa Sadr, a Lebanese Shi'a leader is apparently assassinated after he disappears on a trip to Libya. As part of the Camp David Accords, Egypt becomes the first Arab nation to recognize Israel. Israel returns the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt.
1979: Years of political tension and unrest in Iran climax as the autocratic Pahlavi regime is overthrown by a popular revolution. In its place, Iranian clerics led by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini establish an Islamic government and declare Iran an Islamic Republic. Groups of students loyal to the new regime seize control of the American embassy in Tehran and take 66 officials hostage. Religious students in Saudi Arabia seize control of the Haram of Mecca, sparking a two-week standoff with Saudi security forces. The crisis comes to an end when Saudi forces storm the mosque, killing 237 of the 300 men and apprehending the remainder. All surviving conspirators in the plot are publicly executed. The Soviet Union invades Afghanistan. Death of influential Islamist leader Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi.
1980: Iraq invades Iran, beginning the Iran-Iraq war. In a move not recognized internationally, Israel confirms its capital as the united Jerusalem.
1981: The 444-day Iranian hostage crisis comes to an end. Egyptian president Anwar Sadat is assassinated by militants opposed to his autocratic policies and recognition of Israel.
1982: Israel invades Lebanon, purportedly in response to repeated Katyusha rocket attacks originating in southern Lebanon.
1988: The Iran-Iraq war comes to an end following much loss of life. President Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq of Pakistan is killed in a plane crash caused by a mysterious mid-air explosion.
1989: Death of Shia religious leader and Iranian head of state Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini; Accession of Ali Khamenei as the Supreme Leader of Iran. The Soviet Union withdraws the last of its forces from Afghanistan. Afghan mujahideen factions begin fighting each other.
1990: Iraq invades Kuwait. North Yemen and South Yemen reunite.
1991: A coalition of United States-led forces attacks Iraq and reverses its attempted military annexation of Kuwait. US-backed economic sanctions are imposed on Iraq. The sanctions are widely blamed for subsequent dramatic increases in famine, birth defects, and infant mortality amongst Iraqis. The Soviet Union collapses. Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, all predominantly Muslim former Soviet republics, become independent.
1992: The 400 year-old Babri Masjid in Ayodhya, India is destroyed by Hindu extremists, sparking widespread religious rioting across India.
1994: Jordan becames the second of Israel's Arab neighbors to recognize Israel.
1996: Taliban forces seize control of most of Afghanistan and declare the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. After leading his Welfare Party to a surprise victory in the 1995 general elections, Necmettin Erbakan becomes the first pro-Islamic Prime Minister of modern Turkey.
1998: Amidst growing criticism of his economic policies, longtime Indonesian leader General Suharto resigns after over thirty years in power. Pakistan conducts nuclear tests in response to similar tests by neighbor and arch rival India, becoming the first Muslim nuclear power. Former deputy prime minister of Malaysia Anwar Ibrahim, a vocal critic of prime minister Mahathir Mohamad, is arrested and imprisoned on charges of sodomy.
1999: Death of Jordan's King Hussein. King Hussein's son Abdullah is declared king of Jordan. Indonesia relinquishes control of East Timor, which is granted independence under a UN-sponsored act of self-determination. General Pervez Musharraf seizes control of Pakistan after a military coup against the government of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif.
Back to top
Arnold Yasin Mol
Guest





PostPosted: Wed Aug 29, 2007 4:29 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

2000: Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip begin the Al-Aqsa Intifada, prompted by Ariel Sharon's visit to a disputed religious site holy to both Jews and Muslims. President Hafez al-Assad of Syria dies of a heart attack. His son Bashar al-Assad is elected President by Syria's Majlis Al Shaa'b (Parliament).
2001: Members of Al Qaeda, a radical Muslim organization, attack the United States. Hijacked commercial airliners are flown into the World Trade Center and the Pentagon building on September 11, 2001, killing upwards of three thousand. The United States subsequently declares a War on Terror and invades Afghanistan, whose Taliban regime had given refuge to Al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden. The Taliban are ousted from power, though the fate of bin Laden is unknown as of 2007.
2003: The United States leads the invasion of Iraq, starting the second Iraq War.
2003: Shirin Ebadi becomes the first Muslim woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize for her efforts in promoting human rights.
2004 a radical Muslim group claims responsibility for bombings in Madrid's commuter railway and several trains. The terrorist attack killed 191, and wounds 1,460 others. See also Madrid Bombings. Nevertheless the Islamists' claim, latest unveilings suggest that perhaps the role of Islamic extremists was less capital than it has been officially presented. The second largest earthquake ever recorded occurs in the Indian Ocean triggering the Asian Tsunami. Indonesia suffers the heaviest damage with 167,736 dead, 37,063 missing and 500,000+ displaced.
2005: a radical Muslim group claims responsibility for bombings in the London Underground. The terrorist attack kills 52, and wounds over 700 others. See also July 2005 London bombings. Bombings in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt kill at least 83 and wound hundreds. Saudi Arabia's King Fahd dies. Fahd's brother Crown Prince Abdullah bin Abdul-Aziz, who had assumed de facto leadership of the country after King Fahd suffered a debilitating stroke in 1994, is declared king. A powerful, 7.6-magnitude earthquake hits Pakistan-controlled Kashmir, killing upwards of 73,000 people.
2006: Military conflict in Lebanon and northern Israel, primarily between Hezbollah paramilitary forces and Israel.
2006: Death of former Iraqi Dictator Saddam Hussein by hanging for crimes against humanity.


Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Muslim_history
Back to top
zahida
Guest





PostPosted: Sat Oct 06, 2007 4:34 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

AoA
its not the true history,,then why is it posted here ? Confused
Back to top
Arnold Yasin Mol
Guest





PostPosted: Sun Oct 07, 2007 5:28 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Salaam Aleikum,

Only the first 200 years must be taken with very caution, from 900 on we can partially trust the accounts and also learn from them what went wrong and how Muslim society ended up here in the 21st century.
Back to top
Dr. Shabbir
Site Admin


Joined: 24 Dec 2006
Posts: 1328
Location: Florida, USA

PostPosted: Tue Oct 28, 2008 3:57 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

http://www.newstatesman.com/books/2008/10/afghanistan-british-taliban

BOOKS
The killing fields

John Sweeney

Published 23 October 2008
_________________
Wassalam,
SA
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Send e-mail
Display posts from previous:   
Post new topic   Reply to topic    Our Beacon Forum Index -> Islamic History All times are GMT - 5 Hours
Page 1 of 1

 
Jump to:  
You cannot post new topics in this forum
You cannot reply to topics in this forum
You cannot edit your posts in this forum
You cannot delete your posts in this forum
You cannot vote in polls in this forum


Powered by phpBB © 2001, 2005 phpBB Group