The history of Bani Israel is described in detail because it encompasses almost all characteristics of a tribe/nation: good and bad. Their history provides lessons to all peoples for all times.
The three main scourges of humanity: kingship (Pharaoh), capitalism (Qaroon), and priesthood (Haman) existed among the Israelites all at one time. The Qur'an very clearly defines their traits and impact. The three characters; their symbols live even in our times.