"Mu'awiya attained power by force and secured it also for Yazeed in the same manner. People who did not agree were forced to give it using the sword ".
http://www.answering-ansar.org/answers/muawiya/musalman_ka_uruj_zawal.jpg Musalman ka 'Uruj-o-Zawal page 53
And the method Mu'awiya used that resulted in delegates giving bayya was provocative and forceful.
Let us shed light on his methods by citing the comments of Syed Qutb Shaheed in "Social Justice in Islam" (English translation pages 209-210):
"With the coming of Mu'awiya, the caliphate in Islam became a monarchy, a tyranny confined to the Umayyad family…
It will be sufficient at this point to quote as proof of this the account of the oath of allegiance to Yazid.
From here we may discover the foundation of Umayyad power and find out whether Mu'awiya who established that power was true to the spirit of Islam or to some other ideal.
Mu'awiya summoned delegates to represent all the provinces at the taking the oath of allegiance
Then Yazid Ibn al Muqaffa stood up and said "The Commander of the Faithful is here", and he indicated Mu'awiya, "If he dies his successor is here" and he indicated Yazid. ...even though in the peace agreement he had signed with Imam Hassan stated something different...i.e. that after Muawiya...it goes back to Hassan or his sons....!
Now this how Muawiya extracted bayah....
"And if anyone refuses - here" and he pointed to his sword.
Then, said Mu'awiya, "Sit down O best of preachers".
After the oath was taken also for Yazid in Syria Mu'awiya gave Said ibn al-'As the task of gaining the acceptance of the people of the Hejaz.
This he was unable to do, so Mu'awiys went to Mecca with an army and with full treasury.
He called together the principal Muslims and addressed them thus:
"You all know that I have lived among you, and you are aware also of my ties of kindred with you. ...and also Yazid is your brother and your nephew.
It is my wish that you take the oath of allegiance also to Yazid as the next Caliph; then it will be you who will bestow offices and depose from them, who will collect and apportion money".
He was answered by Abdullah ibn Al Zubair, who gave him a choice of three things to do, first he might do as Allah's Messenger had done and appoint no successor, second he might do as Abu Bakr had done and nominate a successor, third he might do as Umar had done, and hand over the whole matter to a council of six individuals, none of whom was a member of his own immediate family.
Mu'awiya's anger was kindled, and he asked "Have you any more to say?" "No".
Mu'awiya turned to the remainder of the company "And you?" "We agree with what Ibn Al Zubair has said", they replied.
Then he addressed the meeting in threatening terms: "The one who warns is blameless.
I was speaking among you, and one of you was bold to get up and call me a liar to my face.
That I will bear and even forgive.
But I stand to my words, and I swear by Allah that if any of you speaks one word against the position that I take up, no word of answer will he receive, but first the sword will take his head.
And no man can do more than save his life".
Thereupon the commander of Mu'awiya's guard ordered two men to stand over each of the nobles of the Hejaz who opposed him and to each he said, "If your man leaves his guards to speak one word, either for me or against me, then let the guards strike off his head with their swords".
Then he mounted the pulpit and proclaimed: "These men are the Leaders and the choicest of the Muslims; no matter can be successfully handled without them, nor can any decision be taken without their counsel.
They are now satisfied to take the oath , and have indeed already taken that oath by the name of Allah". So the people took the oath.
http://www.answering-ansar.org/answers/muawiya/social_justice_p209_210.jpg Social Justice in Islam, (English translation) pages 209-210
Mu'awiya killed all those who posed a hurdle for him making Yazeed Khalifah..
Muawiya Killed Bibi Aeisha and her brother and Imam Hassan !
Muawiyah not only used his money, but he also made use of violence to secure his filthy seat and succession to the throne.
Victims of such violence also included Abdur Rahman bin Khalid bin Waleed.
Though Abdur Rahman was not a Shia rather a Nasibi, when it cames to the love of his filthy son, Muawiyah didn't even spare one of his companions.
http://www.al-eman.com/Islamlib/viewchp.asp?BID=251&CID=123#s1 al Bidaya wa al Nihaya, Volume 8 page 31 Dhikr 31 Hijri
http://www.al-eman.com/Islamlib/viewchp.asp?BID=170&CID=31 al Istiab, Volume 1 page 250, Dhikr Abdur Rahman bin Khalid
al Nasa al Kafiya, page 62
http://www.al-eman.com/Islamlib/viewchp.asp?BID=400&CID=81 Asadul Ghaba, page 440 Dhikr Abdur Rahman bin Khalid bin al-Walid
Tarikh Kamil, Volume 2 page 213
Shazarath'ul Dhahab, Volume 1 page 55 Dhikr 46 Hijri
We read in Al Bidaya:
عبد الرحمن بن خال بن الوليد
القرشى المخزومى وكان من الشجعان المعروفين والأبطال المشهورين كابيه وكان قد عظم ببلاد الشام لذلك حتى خاف منه معاوية ومات وهو مسموم
"Khalid bin Walid's son Abdur Rahman was from amongst the brave men and was popular in Syria hence Mu'awiya was against him and was poisoned"
We read in al-Istiab:
"Abdurehman was againt Ali and Bani Hashim … he had fought in Sifeen alongside Muawiyah…When Muaiywah decided to take bayah from people for his Yazeed, he gave a sermon to the people of Syria in which he said: 'the time of my death is approaching, I am elderly and I want to make a ruler for you people, what do you people want?'. They said: 'We like Abdurehman'.
The agreement between Mu'awiya and Amr bin Aas is clear proof that the motive was power not avenging Uthman's murder
Perhaps the advocates of Mu'awiya will not be convinced, well let us hear the testimony from the mouth of their Imam Mu'awiya. In Iqd al Fareed page 113 Volume 1 Chapter "Yaum Sifeen" a detailed conversation is cited between Amr bin Aas and Mu'awiya.
"Mu'awiya told Amr bin Aas to give him bayya. Amr replied 'if its with regards to the next world, then Allah (swt) will not be with you, if its in connection with this world then I would like a share". Mu'awiya replied, "in my world there is an equal share". Amr said, "I would like you to put into writing that you will give me Egypt and its surrounding suburbs". Mu'awiya did so adding (in the agreement) that Amr give him bayya.
Amr replied that it should also be written (in the agreement) that it (bayya) will be subject to the conditions being met. Mu'awiya replied "people will not look at this" but Amr said "Do this". At this point Utba bin Abi Sufiyan attended and Amr said "Mu'awiya I have sold my religion at your hands". Utba said "Verily give him the full agreed amount as he was a Sahaba of the Prophet".
http://www.al-eman.com/Islamlib/viewchp.asp?BID=195&CID=30 Iqd al Fareed, Volume 1 page 113
Notice how the killing of Uthman is missing from the entire conversation. The discussion is about power and Mu'awiya's bribing of Amr with land to get him on board. Despite Abu Sulaiman's excuses, the words used by Amr bin Aas "Mu'awiya I have sold my religion at your hands", stand as clear testimony that even he felt that he had abandoned his religion by siding with Mu'awiya, but alas for bin Aas his lust for power was so great that it outweighed his iman. Power was the name of the game not the enforcement "revenge for Uthman" was the war cry via which Mu'awiya sought to enhance his ambitions.
We read in al-Akhbar al-Tiwal page 158 "Dhikr Siffeen" that Amr said to Mu'awiya "Give me Egypt to eat from as long as you are a ruler". Tareekh Abu Fida Volume 2 page 238 "Dhikr Siffeen" likewise states that Amr placed a condition that to join Mu'awiya he would be given the power to govern Egypt. It is indeed interesting to note how the promise of power and authority was the factor that 'moved' Amr bin Aas over to the noble cause of avenging the blood of Uthman.
Power was the name of the game not the enforcement "revenge for Uthman" was the war cry via which Mu'awiya sought to enhance his ambitions.
What greater proof of the deviance of Mu'awiya can there be than the admission of his key supporter Amr bin Aas. We read in in Ta'rikh Kamil Volume 2 page 139 "Dhikr Siffeen" that Amr bin Aas said the following to Mu'awiya:
"Avenging Uthman's blood was just an excuse, we are desirous of worldly power, upon hearing this Mu'awiya agreed to hand over Egypt to Amr".
Do the defenders of Mu'awiya need to be convinced any further? This is the testimony of one of the key central characters in this episode admitting to Mu'awiya that Uthman's revenge was an excuse, the real motive was just power. If Mu'awiya disagreed with this assertion then why did he not admonish him and set the record straight?
Mu'awiya's testimony further proves his real motive was power not vengeance for the slain Uthman
Advocate of Mu'awiya, Ibn Kathir records two interesting references that further exposes the real reason for Mu'awiya's opposition. One who these references is about Muawiya's first sermon to the people of Kufa that has also been quoted by Syed Qutub Shaheed in his famous book 'Social justice in Islam':
"Men of Kufa, do you think I fought against you on account of prayers or Zakar or pilgrimage? I knew that you said the prayers, that you paid the Zakar and that you performed the pilgrimage. I fought you in order to have control and mastery over you, now Allah has granted me that mastery, though you may not like it. Now, therefore, all the money and all the blood that I have had to expend in this war is still to be repaid, and all the promises that I made in the truce are under my feet here"
1. http://www.answering-ansar.org/answers/muawiya/social_justice_p237 Social justice in Islam, page 237
2. http://www.answering-ansar.org/answers/muawiya/bidayah_v8_p974.jpg Al-Bidayah (Urdu), Vol 8 page 974, under the topic of Merits and virtuous of Muawiyah
Before the above cited episode, we read in Al-Bidayah (Urdu), Vol 8 pages 967-968, under the topic of Merits and virtuous of Muawiyah:
Ibn Asakir has narrated from Amir Shu'bi that prior to the battle of Siffeen…Ali sent Jareer bin Abdullah al-Bajli to Muawiyah with a letter which contained the text: 'It is compulsory on you to give allegiance (bayyah) to me since Muhajir and Ansar have already given their allegiance to me and if you don't give it, I will seek Allah's help against you...' Muawiyah read the letter before the public and Jareer got up and addressed the people and in his speech he advised Muawiyah to listen and obey (Ali) and warned him from opposing and prevented him from spreading mischief (fitna) among the people…Muawiyah told Jareer: 'If Ali makes me Governor over Syria and Egypt, on the condition that after him it will not be obligatory on me to give bayah to someone else, I will give him bayyah.'
http://www.al-eman.net/Islamlib/viewchp.asp?BID=251&CID=128 Al-Bidayah wal-Nihayah [Arabic], Volume 8 page 138
Allamah Khawarzmi in his "Manaqib" page 255 Chapter "Dhikr Siffeen" states that:
"Mu'awiya wrote a letter to 'Ali which he sent via the hand of 'Abdullah bin Uqbah. In the letter he stated 'I asked you about my ruling Syria, and placed an additional condition that neither I give you bay'a nor do I obey you, but you rejected this. But Allah gave me what you rejected to give me, I continue to hold the same view about what I had invited you before (about Syria and not giving you bay'a)."
This and the previous reference from al Bidaya proves he had NO INTEREST in the killing Uthman rather his interest was one - gaining power. Mu'awiya simply used Uthman's murder as an 'excuse' not to give bay`a to Imam 'Ali (as). If he was indeed sincere perhaps Abu Sulaiman can explain why Mu'awiya did not ask for the killers to be handed following arbitration between the two sides at Sifeen? After all as Abu Sulaiman states the Syrians loved him and Mu'awiya was so determined to avenge Uthman's death that he deemed it appropriate to go to war. This being the case how is it that he totally abandoned this determination when the two sides were negotiating, if Uthman's death was so important that thousands of lives could be lost, why did he all of a sudden abandon this resolve? If he was sincere would this not have been the very first thing that he demanded? This was clearly a farce and Deobandi scholar Sayyid Ahmad Raza Bijnori in his commentary of Sahih al Bukhari "Anwar ul Bari" states on Volume 12 page 73:
"Mu'awiya fought out of a personal desire for power and was motivated by his pro Umayya bias".
http://www.answering-ansar.org/answers/muawiya/anwar_ul_bari.jpg Anwar-ul-Bari Sharah Sahih Al-Bukhari Vol. 12 page 73
Moreover Shah Abdul Aziz Dehlavi in his Fatwa Azizi page 161 Chapter 8 under the chapter "Marwan" in answer to question 5 makes the admission:
"The scholars of Ahl'ul hadith having relied on narration's have concluded that Mu'awiya's actions were based on his personal grudge and desire and it was not on account of the enmity that had been borne our between the Quraysh and Banu Umayya following the murder of the possessor of two lights [Uthman], the truth is that he was guilty of a great sin, was a baghi (rebel) and a fasiq (transgressor)".
http://www.answering-ansar.org/answers/muawiya/fatwa_azizi.jpg Fatwa Azizi page 161 Chapter 8