41:37(Divine Guidance helps people live a balanced life as seen in the Universe.) Among His Signs are the night and the day as well as the sun and the moon. Adore neither the sun nor the moon, but adore God Who created them, if it is Him you wish to serve.
2:189 (Self-control is a life-long commitment extending beyond the month of Ramadhan.) They ask you (O Messenger) about the phases of the Moon. Say, “They are calendars to help mankind determine certain seasons such as Hajj.” But know that righteousness can never be achieved by entering the System through the back door of ritualism. Only he who lives an upright life attains it. Enter the Divinely ordained Way of Life straightforward as you must enter houses through their gates. Live upright so that you may reap a rich harvest. [2:138, 2:177, 2:208. There is no such thing as a part-time Muslim]
6:96 He is the Cleaver of the daybreak. He has appointed the night for stillness, (rest and tranquility) and the sun and the moon to run their well-calculated courses. They become means of calculating time for you (10:5). Such is the Design of the All-Powerful, the All-Knowing.
10:5 He it is, Who appointed the sun as a splendid glow, and the moon as a cool light. He appointed stages for the moon, in due measure. You make your calculations and calendars accordingly. God has created the Universe as the Absolute Reality and for a Purpose. God explains His verses for those who wish to learn. [The Universe is neither a dream as the ancient Hindu philosopher Manu preached, nor a reflection of the world of ideas as Plato thought. 6:97, 17:12]
14:33 And made the sun and the moon, both of them constant on their courses - And committed the night and the day to serve you.
55:5 The sun and the moon run by a mathematical design. [Such are the changeless Divine Laws]
The Persian calendar: a Masterpieces in astronomy in the period of more than 1000 years ago
Iranian astronomy calendar is the most accurate and the most complete calendar around the world. This calendar was written according to the Earth’s movement around the sun. For example, in comparing it with the ad calendar, second one has only one false day per 3320 years, but Iranian calendar has just two false days per 10,000 years!
For this reason many mathematicians and astronomers believe that Iranian calendar is the most complete and creative calendar in the world. The emergence of this calendar has an interesting story that I think that can be useful for reading.
Islamic Solar Calendar: Eclipsed by Politics and Ideology
As we celebrate the Vernal Equinox, the Islamic Solar New Year, commonly known in the West as the Persian New Year, controversies abound as to its origin and re-identification.
The year was 1073 CE when Sultan Jallaluddin Malikshah I commissioned a counsel of astronomers, headed by the renowned Omar Khayyam of Nishapur, in the observatory of Isfahan to solve the problem of the ebb and flow of seasonal drift in the Islamic lunar calendar.
Umar Khayyam’s the poet
“It is therefore imperative that we see Khayyæm’s Rubā‘iyyāt not as the
voice of a frustrated poet expressing his bewilderment with the riddles of
life but as a form of resistance expressed philosophically and poetically
against the forces of darkness who were intent on imposing their version
And those who show their prayer-rugs are but mules-
Mere hypocrites who use those rugs as tools;
Behind the veil of zealotry they trade
Trading Islam, worse than heathen are those fools.
Khayyæm’s precarious situation is not all that different from the circumstances
in which a number of contemporary Muslim intellectuals find
themselves. From the rise of the Tæliban in Afghanistan and Pakistan to
the spread of Islamic fundamentalism in other countries, the conflict between
the free thinkers and orthodoxy appears to be a perennial one. In
such circumstances, we also see the rise of the literature of resistance. The
use of symbolism, allegory and short and long pieces of highly symbolic
literature throughout the Islamic world by the intelligentsia both medieval
and modern bears testament to the need to fight orthodoxy through resistance
Nowhere has this been more apparent than the rise of highly symbolic
modern Persian poetry in the years since the Iranian revolution of 1979.