Our Beacon Forum

The Creation & Emergence of Species
By:Ather Sunar, Jhelum
Date: Tuesday, 21 August 2018, 5:01 pm

http://signsandscience.blogspot.com/2018/08/the-creation-emergence-of-species.html

Tuesday, August 14, 2018
The Creation & Emergence of Species
Abstract
The creation and emergence of species as described in The Quran.

ذَٰلِكُمُ اللَّهُ رَبُّكُمْ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ خَالِقُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ فَاعْبُدُوهُ وَهُوَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَكِيلٌ
That (is) Allah your Lord, (there is) no god except Him, (the) Creator (of) every thing, so worship Him. And He (is) on every thing a Guardian.
[Al-Quran 6:102]

The scriptural and scientific history have many parallels and overlaps:

water was sent to this planet before any life could appear on it;
the plants preceded animal life;
ectotherms appeared before endotherms;

Creation of Species
Allah, the one and only God, is not only the creator of everything, but also perfect in His ability to create. He made good everything He created:

الَّذِي أَحْسَنَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقَهُ وَبَدَأَ خَلْقَ الْإِنسَانِ مِن طِينٍ
The One Who made good every thing He created, and He began (the) creation (of) man from clay.
[Al-Quran 32:7]

The species were created and blessed to flourish before the Universe as we know it came into existence, after which they have emerged on the planet as preordained:

قُلْ أَئِنَّكُمْ لَتَكْفُرُونَ بِالَّذِي خَلَقَ الْأَرْضَ فِي يَوْمَيْنِ وَتَجْعَلُونَ لَهُ أَندَادًا ذَٰلِكَ رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ
وَجَعَلَ فِيهَا رَوَاسِيَ مِن فَوْقِهَا وَبَارَكَ فِيهَا وَقَدَّرَ فِيهَا أَقْوَاتَهَا فِي أَرْبَعَةِ أَيَّامٍ سَوَاءً لِّلسَّائِلِينَ
ثُمَّ اسْتَوَىٰ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ وَهِيَ دُخَانٌ فَقَالَ لَهَا وَلِلْأَرْضِ ائْتِيَا طَوْعًا أَوْ كَرْهًا قَالَتَا أَتَيْنَا طَائِعِينَ
فَقَضَاهُنَّ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ فِي يَوْمَيْنِ وَأَوْحَىٰ فِي كُلِّ سَمَاءٍ أَمْرَهَا وَزَيَّنَّا السَّمَاءَ الدُّنْيَا بِمَصَابِيحَ وَحِفْظًا ذَٰلِكَ تَقْدِيرُ الْعَزِيزِ الْعَلِيمِ

Ask ˹them, O Prophet˺, “How can you disbelieve in the One Who created the earth in two Days? And how can you set up equals with Him? That is the Lord of all worlds.

He placed on the earth firm mountains, standing high, showered His blessings upon it, and ordained ˹all˺ its means of sustenance—totaling four Days exactly—for all who ask.

Then He turned towards the heaven when it was ˹still like˺ smoke, saying to it and to the earth, ‘Submit, willingly or unwillingly.’ They both responded, ‘We submit willingly.’

So He formed the heaven into seven heavens in two Days, assigning to each its mandate. And We adorned the lowest heaven with ˹stars like˺ lamps ˹for beauty˺ and for protection. That is the design of the Almighty, All-Knowing.”
[Al-Quran 41:9-10, Translation: Dr Mustafa Khattab]

The Quran and The Bible both contain two genesis narratives.

The narrative of The Quran can be categorised into two groups: those ayaat which inform about the great works of Allah; and the other group comprises of the ayaat that use the pronoun We, which inform about the tasks subsequently assigned, by Allah, to some mighty beings in the divine government, who also seem to be the authors of The Quran.

For more on the difference between THE CREATOR I and THE CREATORS WE, please read the similarly titled section at the bottom of the post: Human: Body or Soul?

Water - the basis of life

أَوَلَمْ يَرَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَنَّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ كَانَتَا رَتْقًا فَفَتَقْنَاهُمَا وَجَعَلْنَا مِنَ الْمَاءِ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ حَيٍّ أَفَلَا يُؤْمِنُونَ
Do not see those who disbelieved that the heavens and the earth were a joined entity, then We parted them and We made from [the] water every living thing? Then will not they believe?
[Al-Quran 21:30]

وَاللَّهُ خَلَقَ كُلَّ دَابَّةٍ مِّن مَّاءٍ فَمِنْهُم مَّن يَمْشِي عَلَىٰ بَطْنِهِ وَمِنْهُم مَّن يَمْشِي عَلَىٰ رِجْلَيْنِ وَمِنْهُم مَّن يَمْشِي عَلَىٰ أَرْبَعٍ يَخْلُقُ اللَّهُ مَا يَشَاءُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
And Allah created every moving creature from water. Of them (is a kind) who walks on its belly, and of them (is a kind) who walks on two legs, and of them (is a kind) who walks on four. Allah creates what He wills. Indeed, Allah on every thing (is) All-Powerful.
[Al-Quran 24:45]

It is a well-recognised fact that all known lifeforms are water-based! The double helix occurs in the molecular scale in water clusters and in the DNA of living things. Moreover, the DNA molecule itself is surrounded with water and would not be able to function in the absence of water. Also consider:

تَبَارَكَ الَّذِي بِيَدِهِ الْمُلْكُ وَهُوَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
الَّذِي خَلَقَ الْمَوْتَ وَالْحَيَاةَ لِيَبْلُوَكُمْ أَيُّكُمْ أَحْسَنُ عَمَلًا وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْغَفُورُ
...
قُلْ أَرَأَيْتُمْ إِنْ أَصْبَحَ مَاؤُكُمْ غَوْرًا فَمَن يَأْتِيكُم بِمَاءٍ مَّعِينٍ
Blessed is He in Whose Hand (is) the Dominion, and He (is) over every thing All-Powerful.
The One Who created death and life that He may test you, which of you (is) best (in) deed. And He (is) the All-Mighty, the Oft-Forgiving.
...
Say, "Have you seen, if becomes your water sunken, then who could bring you water flowing?"
[Al-Quran 67:1,2,...30]

Emergence of Life

يُخْرِجُ الْحَيَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّتِ وَيُخْرِجُ الْمَيِّتَ مِنَ الْحَيِّ وَيُحْيِي الْأَرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا وَكَذَٰلِكَ تُخْرَجُونَ
He brings forth the living from the dead and He brings forth the dead from the living, and He gives life (to) the earth after its death, and thus you will be brought forth.
[Al-Quran 30:19]

وَآيَةٌ لَّهُمُ الْأَرْضُ الْمَيْتَةُ أَحْيَيْنَاهَا وَأَخْرَجْنَا مِنْهَا حَبًّا فَمِنْهُ يَأْكُلُونَ
وَجَعَلْنَا فِيهَا جَنَّاتٍ مِّن نَّخِيلٍ وَأَعْنَابٍ وَفَجَّرْنَا فِيهَا مِنَ الْعُيُونِ
لِيَأْكُلُوا مِن ثَمَرِهِ وَمَا عَمِلَتْهُ أَيْدِيهِمْ أَفَلَا يَشْكُرُونَ
And a Sign for them (is) the earth dead. We give it life and We bring forth from it grain, and from it they eat. And We placed therein gardens of date-palms and grapevines, and We caused to gush in it of the springs, That they may eat of its fruit. And not made it their hands. So will not they be grateful?
[Al-Quran 36:33-35]

Flora & Fauna

وَهُوَ الَّذِي مَدَّ الْأَرْضَ وَجَعَلَ فِيهَا رَوَاسِيَ وَأَنْهَارًا وَمِن كُلِّ الثَّمَرَاتِ جَعَلَ فِيهَا زَوْجَيْنِ اثْنَيْنِ يُغْشِي اللَّيْلَ النَّهَارَ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ
And He (is) the One Who spread the earth, and placed in it firm mountains and rivers, and from all (of) the fruits He made in it pairs two. He covers the night (with) the day. Indeed, in that surely (are) Signs for a people who ponder.
[Al-Quran 13:3]

وَالْأَرْضَ مَدَدْنَاهَا وَأَلْقَيْنَا فِيهَا رَوَاسِيَ وَأَنبَتْنَا فِيهَا مِن كُلِّ شَيْءٍ مَّوْزُونٍ
And the earth, We have spread it and [We] cast therein firm mountains and [We] caused to grow therein of every thing well-balanced.
[Al-Quran 15:19]

الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الْأَرْضَ مَهْدًا وَسَلَكَ لَكُمْ فِيهَا سُبُلًا وَأَنزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَأَخْرَجْنَا بِهِ أَزْوَاجًا مِّن نَّبَاتٍ شَتَّىٰ
The One Who made for you the earth (as) a bed and inserted for you therein ways, and sent down from the sky water, then We (have) brought forth with it, pairs of plants diverse.
[Al-Quran 20:53]

Scientists are now theorising that water on Earth predates the formation of the Solar System, has celestial origins and must have been delivered to Earth.

Fire from Green Trees
Interestingly the Arabic words for gardens & jinns share the same root: ج ن ن
The Quran states that the jinns were created from fire; and fire has been made from green plants:

الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُم مِّنَ الشَّجَرِ الْأَخْضَرِ نَارًا فَإِذَا أَنتُم مِّنْهُ تُوقِدُونَ
The One Who made for you from the tree [the] green - fire, and behold! You from it ignite.
[Al-Quran 36:80]

أَفَرَأَيْتُمُ النَّارَ الَّتِي تُورُونَ
أَأَنتُمْ أَنشَأْتُمْ شَجَرَتَهَا أَمْ نَحْنُ الْمُنشِئُونَ
Do you see the Fire, which you ignite?
Is it you who produced its tree or We (are) the Producers?
[Al-Quran 56:71-72]

Animals

وَمَا مِن دَابَّةٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا طَائِرٍ يَطِيرُ بِجَنَاحَيْهِ إِلَّا أُمَمٌ أَمْثَالُكُم مَّا فَرَّطْنَا فِي الْكِتَابِ مِن شَيْءٍ ثُمَّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ يُحْشَرُونَ
And not [of] any animal in the earth and not a bird (that) flies with its wings - but (are) communities like you. We have not neglected in the Book [of] anything, then to their Lord they will be gathered.

[Al-Quran 6:38]

أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْا أَنَّا خَلَقْنَا لَهُم مِّمَّا عَمِلَتْ أَيْدِينَا أَنْعَامًا فَهُمْ لَهَا مَالِكُونَ
وَذَلَّلْنَاهَا لَهُمْ فَمِنْهَا رَكُوبُهُمْ وَمِنْهَا يَأْكُلُونَ
وَلَهُمْ فِيهَا مَنَافِعُ وَمَشَارِبُ أَفَلَا يَشْكُرُونَ
Do not they see that We [We] created for them from what have made Our hands, cattle, then they [for them] (are the) owners?
And We have tamed them for them, so some of them - they ride them, and some of them they eat.
And for them therein (are) benefits and drinks, so (will) not they give thanks?
[Al-Quran 36:71-73]

وَفِي خَلْقِكُمْ وَمَا يَبُثُّ مِن دَابَّةٍ آيَاتٌ لِّقَوْمٍ يُوقِنُونَ
وَاخْتِلَافِ اللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ وَمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مِن رِّزْقٍ فَأَحْيَا بِهِ الْأَرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا وَتَصْرِيفِ الرِّيَاحِ آيَاتٌ لِّقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُونَ
And in your creation and what He disperses of (the) moving creatures (are) Signs for a people who are certain.
And (in the) alternation (of) the night and the day and what Allah sends down from the sky of (the) provision and gives life thereby (to) the earth after its death, and (in) directing (the) winds (are) Signs for a people who reason.
[Al-Quran 45:4-5]
Jinns & Humans

خَلَقَ الْإِنسَانَ مِن صَلْصَالٍ كَالْفَخَّارِ
وَخَلَقَ الْجَانَّ مِن مَّارِجٍ مِّن نَّارٍ
He created the man from clay like the pottery.
And He created the jinn from a smokeless flame of fire.
[Al-Quran 55:14-15]

Based upon the ability of organisms to internally produce heat or depend upon external sources to regulate their body temperature, they are classified as endotherms and ectotherms: endotherms such as humans thermoregulate their body temperature; ectotherms, on the other hand, depend on their environment to heat or cool down their bodies, such as snakes and other reptiles.

The Age of Reptiles

وَلَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا الْإِنسَانَ مِن صَلْصَالٍ مِّنْ حَمَإٍ مَّسْنُونٍ
وَالْجَانَّ خَلَقْنَاهُ مِن قَبْلُ مِن نَّارِ السَّمُومِ
And verily, We created humankind (out) of sounding clay from black mud altered.
And the jinn We created it before from fire scorching.
[Al-Quran 15:26-27]

The Quran states that in this world the jinns were created before humans. Jinns, I understand, are Snakes, as discussed in detail in جَانٌّ (Snake || Jinn). According to fossil records, the reptiles appeared on the Earth much before the mammals.

The Age of Man

هُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ لَكُم مَّا فِي الْأَرْضِ جَمِيعًا ثُمَّ اسْتَوَىٰ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ فَسَوَّاهُنَّ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ
وَإِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ إِنِّي جَاعِلٌ فِي الْأَرْضِ خَلِيفَةً قَالُوا أَتَجْعَلُ فِيهَا مَن يُفْسِدُ فِيهَا وَيَسْفِكُ الدِّمَاءَ وَنَحْنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِكَ وَنُقَدِّسُ لَكَ قَالَ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ
وَعَلَّمَ آدَمَ الْأَسْمَاءَ كُلَّهَا ثُمَّ عَرَضَهُمْ عَلَى الْمَلَائِكَةِ فَقَالَ أَنبِئُونِي بِأَسْمَاءِ هَٰؤُلَاءِ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ
قَالُوا سُبْحَانَكَ لَا عِلْمَ لَنَا إِلَّا مَا عَلَّمْتَنَا إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَلِيمُ الْحَكِيمُ
قَالَ يَا آدَمُ أَنبِئْهُم بِأَسْمَائِهِمْ فَلَمَّا أَنبَأَهُم بِأَسْمَائِهِمْ قَالَ أَلَمْ أَقُل لَّكُمْ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ غَيْبَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَأَعْلَمُ مَا تُبْدُونَ وَمَا كُنتُمْ تَكْتُمُونَ
وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ اسْجُدُوا لِآدَمَ فَسَجَدُوا إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ أَبَىٰ وَاسْتَكْبَرَ وَكَانَ مِنَ الْكَافِرِينَ
وَقُلْنَا يَا آدَمُ اسْكُنْ أَنتَ وَزَوْجُكَ الْجَنَّةَ وَكُلَا مِنْهَا رَغَدًا حَيْثُ شِئْتُمَا وَلَا تَقْرَبَا هَٰذِهِ الشَّجَرَةَ فَتَكُونَا مِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ
فَأَزَلَّهُمَا الشَّيْطَانُ عَنْهَا فَأَخْرَجَهُمَا مِمَّا كَانَا فِيهِ وَقُلْنَا اهْبِطُوا بَعْضُكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ عَدُوٌّ وَلَكُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ مُسْتَقَرٌّ وَمَتَاعٌ إِلَىٰ حِينٍ
فَتَلَقَّىٰ آدَمُ مِن رَّبِّهِ كَلِمَاتٍ فَتَابَ عَلَيْهِ إِنَّهُ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ
قُلْنَا اهْبِطُوا مِنْهَا جَمِيعًا فَإِمَّا يَأْتِيَنَّكُم مِّنِّي هُدًى فَمَن تَبِعَ هُدَايَ فَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ
وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَكَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا أُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ

He (is) the One Who created for you what (is) in the earth, all. Then, He turned to the heaven and fashioned them into seven heavens. And He of every thing (is) All-Knowing.

And when said your Lord to the angels, "Indeed, I (am) going to place in the earth a vicegerent, they said, "Will You place in it (one) who will spread corruption in it and will shed [the] blood[s], while we, [we] glorify (You) with Your praises and we sanctify [to] He said, "Indeed, [I] know what not you know."

And He taught Adam the names - all of them. Then He displayed them to the angels, then He said, "Inform of (the) names (of) these, if you are truthful."
They said, "Perfect are You! No knowledge (is) for us except what You have taught us. Indeed You! You (are) the All-Knowing, the All-Wise.
He said, "O Adam! Inform them of their names." And when he had informed them of their names, He said, "Did not I say to you, Indeed, I [I] know (the) unseen (of) the heavens and the earth, and I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing."

And when We said to the angels, "Prostrate to Adam," [so] they prostrated except Iblees. He refused and was arrogant and became of the disbelievers.
And We said, "O Adam! Dwell you and your spouse (in) Paradise, and [you both] eat from it freely (from) wherever you [both] wish. But do not [you two] approach this [the] tree, lest you [both] be of the wrongdoers."

Then made [both of] them slip the Shaitaan from it, and he got [both of] them out from what they [both] were in [it]. And We said, "Go down (all of you), some of you to others (as) enemy; and for you in the earth (is) a dwelling place and a provision for a period."

Then received Adam from his Lord words, So (his Lord) turned towards him. Indeed He! He (is) the Oft-returning (to mercy), the Most Merciful.
We said, "Go down from it all (of you), and when, comes to you from Me Guidance, then whoever follows My Guidance, [then] no fear (will be) on them and not they will grieve.

And those who disbelieve[d] and deny Our Signs, those (are the) companions (of) the Fire; they in it (will) abide forever."
[Al-Quran 2:29-39, Translation edited]

There is some back story to 'I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing'. Adam, the primate, was created, bestowed knowledge and made the dominant specie, so that the humans would henceforth be entrusted to rule with justice and compassion on Earth:

يَا دَاوُودُ إِنَّا جَعَلْنَاكَ خَلِيفَةً فِي الْأَرْضِ فَاحْكُم بَيْنَ النَّاسِ بِالْحَقِّ وَلَا تَتَّبِعِ الْهَوَىٰ فَيُضِلَّكَ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَضِلُّونَ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ شَدِيدٌ بِمَا نَسُوا يَوْمَ الْحِسَابِ
وَمَا خَلَقْنَا السَّمَاءَ وَالْأَرْضَ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا بَاطِلًا ذَٰلِكَ ظَنُّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فَوَيْلٌ لِّلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنَ النَّارِ
أَمْ نَجْعَلُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ كَالْمُفْسِدِينَ فِي الْأَرْضِ أَمْ نَجْعَلُ الْمُتَّقِينَ كَالْفُجَّارِ
كِتَابٌ أَنزَلْنَاهُ إِلَيْكَ مُبَارَكٌ لِّيَدَّبَّرُوا آيَاتِهِ وَلِيَتَذَكَّرَ أُولُو الْأَلْبَابِ
"O Dawood! Indeed, We [We] have made you a vicegerent in the earth, so judge between [the] men in truth and (do) not follow the desire, for it will lead you astray from (the) way (of) Allah. Indeed, those who go astray from (the) way (of) Allah, for them (is) a punishment severe because they forgot (the) Day (of) Account."

And not We created the heaven and the earth and whatever (is) between them without purpose. That (is the) assumption (of) those who disbelieve. So woe to those who disbelieve, from the Fire.

Or should We treat those who believe and do righteous deeds like those who spread corruption in the earth? Or should We treat the pious like the wicked?
(This is) a Book We have revealed it to you, blessed, that they may ponder (over) its Verses and may be reminded those of understanding.
[Al-Quran 38:26-29]

Service & Accountability

وَجَعَلُوا بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ الْجِنَّةِ نَسَبًا وَلَقَدْ عَلِمَتِ الْجِنَّةُ إِنَّهُمْ لَمُحْضَرُونَ
And they have made between Him and between the jinn a relationship, but certainly, know the jinn that they (will) surely be brought.
[Al-Quran 37:158-29]

وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالْإِنسَ إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُونِ
And not I have created the jinn and the mankind except that they worship Me.
[Al-Quran 51:56]

إِنَّ الْمُتَّقِينَ فِي جَنَّاتٍ وَنَهَرٍ
فِي مَقْعَدِ صِدْقٍ عِندَ مَلِيكٍ مُّقْتَدِرٍ
Indeed, the righteous (will be) in gardens and river,
In a seat (of) honor near a King Most Powerful.
[Al-Quran 54:54-55]

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هُوَ اللَّهُ الَّذِي لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ هُوَ الرَّحْمَٰنُ الرَّحِيمُ
هُوَ اللَّهُ الَّذِي لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْمَلِكُ الْقُدُّوسُ السَّلَامُ الْمُؤْمِنُ الْمُهَيْمِنُ الْعَزِيزُ الْجَبَّارُ الْمُتَكَبِّرُ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ
هُوَ اللَّهُ الْخَالِقُ الْبَارِئُ الْمُصَوِّرُ لَهُ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَىٰ يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ

He (is) Allah, the One Who, (there is) no god but He, (the) All-Knower (of) the unseen and the witnessed. He (is) the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
He (is) Allah, the One Who, (there is) no god but He, the Sovereign, the Holy One, the Giver of Peace, the Giver of Security, the Guardian, the All-Mighty, the Irresistible, the Supreme. Glory (be to) Allah from what they associate (with Him).
He (is) Allah, the Creator, the Inventor, the Fashioner. For Him (are) the names the beautiful. Glorifies Him whatever (is) in the heavens and the earth. And He (is) the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.
[Al-Quran 59:22-24]

Messages In This Thread

The Creation & Emergence of Species
Ather Sunar, Jhelum -- Tuesday, 21 August 2018, 5:01 pm
Re: The Creation & Emergence of Species
jawaid ahmed,uk -- Tuesday, 21 August 2018, 5:12 pm
Re: The Creation & Emergence of Species
Dr Shabbir, Florida -- Tuesday, 21 August 2018, 5:18 pm