Quaid-e-Azam MAJ had an astonishing degree of insight into the Qur'an. He presented the clearest possible vision of a true Islamic State in 1941:
In August 1941, Quaid-e-Azam gave an interview to the students of the Osmania University, Hyderabad Deccan. The replies he gave to the students explain his superb comprehension of the foundations of Islam. Here are some excerpts from the interview:
Q. What are the essential features of an Islamic religious state?
A. When I hear the word “religion,” my mind at once thinks of the English usage of the term, that of a private relationship between man and God. But I know full well that according to Islam, the word religion is not restricted to that connotation. Islam is a System of Life*. I am neither a Maulwi nor a Mullah, nor do I claim to be an expert in theology. But I have closely studied the Qur’an and Islamic jurisprudence. This magnificent Qur'an is full of guidance encompassing all aspects of human life, whether spiritual or physical, economic or emotional, political or social; leaving no aspect untouched.
Q. What is the distinctive feature of the Islamic state?
A. A special feature of the Islamic State must not be overlooked. Here, the Source of all obedience is **God alone and the only way to obey God is to obey the Quranic laws and principles. In Islam, obedience is due neither to a king, nor to a parliament, nor to any other person or organization. There is no room for priesthood in Islam. Therefore, Pakistan will not be a ***theocracy in which the government is handed over to clergy so that they, according to their own whims, may fulfill the Divine Mission. It is the Quranic provisions that determine the limits of our freedom and restrictions in political and social domains. In other words, Islamic state is an agency for establishing the Quranic principles and injunctions. And, to establish the Qur’an, you need a state. That is why I am striving for a free state for Muslims.
[Muhammad Ali Jinnah's interview to the Students Union of Osmania University in Hyderabad, Deccan, 19 August 1941, as reported by Orient Press. Reproduced in Urdu Roznama (Daily) Inqalab, January 1942]
“In 1946, the Parsi doctor JAL Patel of Bombay took a chest x-ray of Quaid-e-Azam. The film showed wide spread tuberculosis of the lungs. The great Quaid asked the doctor about his life expectancy. Dr. Patel informed him that he would probably live two years, unless he quit politics and took proper rest, in which case he might live one or two years more. Quaid-e-Azam responded, “This means I have to work even harder. Please hold my reports fully confidential. Only you and I know about this X-ray.” Jinnah did not share the findings even with his beloved sister, comrade and confidant, Fatima Jinnah. She could, however notice his dwindling health and advised him to take a vacation. He said to Fatima, “Have you ever seen a general going on vacation while his soldiers are in the middle of a hot battle?” He worked tirelessly until he achieved his incredible goal of making Pakistan a reality. Then he passed on in peace on Sep 11, 1948.
["My Brother", Urdu, by Ms Fatima Jinnah]
- I say with complete confidence about this great man, “Never in history have so many people owed so much to a single person.”
[Syed Hashim Raza, a close companion of Quaid-e-Azam wrote in the preface to Dr. Shabbir Ahmed’s “Hamaray Quaid-e-Azam” and “Father of the Nation” 2001]
*Notice that MAJ was one of the first men who realized from Allama Iqbal that Islam is DEEN or System of Life, and not a 'Mazhab' or religion.
**"Obedience to God": MAJ does not leave the phrase abstract and immediately qualifies it with obedience of the Quranic laws.
***Note the simplest definition of theocracy.
“Even if someone only acknowledged Jinnah as an excellent barrister, it would be to acknowledge that he had won the most monumental judgment in the history of the Bar. He had realized in the romantic ideal of Pakistan a case that could be fought and won.” [Edgar Snow, the well-known American author]
“A most accomplished lawyer, outstanding amongst any lawyers anywhere and he was an exceptional constitutionalist”. [Sir Stafford Cripps]
Mohammad Ali Jinnah was an outstanding leader and a political giant. In the Indo-Pak subcontinent no constitutional scheme could work unless he agreed. Jinnah, Gandhi, and Dr B R Ambedkar participated in the Second Round Table Conference (1931). Jinnah and Ambedkar worked together. Jinnah pleaded separate electorates for Muslims and other minorities including the Harijans (Dalits). Dr Ambedkar and Jinnah supported each other. Gandhi vehemently opposed the grant of separate electorates to the depressed low caste people but failed. [“Jinnah, the Great Leader”, Urdu, by G.A. Allana]
The British announced the Communal Award on August 17, 1932, giving separate electorates, among others, to the Muslims and depressed classes. On August 18, Gandhi, who was already in jail, wrote to the British prime minister, that unless separate electorates for the depressed classes were rescinded, he would commence a fast unto death at noon on September 20, 1932. Gandhi went on the fast as threatened. When Gandhi’s condition deteriorated, Hindu leaders arranged a meeting between Ambedkar and Gandhi. Eventually an agreement was signed on September 24, 1932, and it went down in history as the Poona Pact. Gandhi broke his fast but soon broke the Pact as well.
In 1941, Dr Ambedkar’s magnum opus, “Thoughts on Pakistan” was published. The book supported the demand for Pakistan. Dr Ambedkar paid glowing tributes to Jinnah, his leadership and integrity.
In 1945, Ambedkar approached Jinnah. Dr Ambedkar was establishing the Siddharth College and needed Rs 1.2 million. He had collected Rs 900,000 and requested Mr Jinnah to speak to the billionaire Seth Dalmiya to donate Rs 3 million to the college. Jinnah found a brilliant legal solution and the college was established.
Dr Ambedkar worked for inter-dining and inter-marriage between the Harijans and other Hindu classes. M.A. Jinnah encouraged and supported Dr Ambedkar and his party. As Dr Ambedkar’s first wife died, on April 15, 1948, Dr Ambedkar married Ms Sharda Kabir, a Brahmin. The New York Times described the marriage as more significant than the wedding of a royalty to a commoner.
The British Cabinet Mission arrived in India and met the political leaders. On May 16, 1946, the Cabinet Mission announced their proposals, according to which the Mission contemplated a loose union, with three groups of provinces, the formation of a Constituent Assembly and an interim central government. The Congress rushed and formed the government. The Muslim League joined the interim government on October 26, 1946, and included the Hindu Jogindranath Mandal as the law minister.
The elections to the Constituent Assembly were held and Dr Ambedkar fielded candidates under the banner of the Scheduled Caste Federation. Dr Ambedkar and his colleagues were defeated so there was no way for him to get into the Constituent Assembly from Bombay Presidency. However, Jinnah came to his rescue. Jogindranath Mandal was elected to the Constituent Assembly from Bengal. Jinnah asked Mandal to resign to make room for Dr Ambedkar.
Accordingly, Dr Ambedkar was elected from East Bengal (The Makers of Indian Constitution by Sheshrao Chawan).
On Jinnah’s persuasion, the Due Process clause that was very unfavorable to the lower caste, was deleted from Article 21 of the Indian Constitution, which now reads: “No person shall be deprived of his right and personal liberty except according to procedure established by law.”
Jinnah in his speech spoke inter alia about:
a) Evils of Corruption;
b) Genuine Democracy;
c) Negative effects of hero worship.
“Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah was a combination of rare qualities. He had the charisma of Churchill, dignity of De Gaulle, popularity of Gandhi and magnetism of Mandela. No leader in the world (barring Prophet Muhammad) accomplished as much as Jinnah did. [Syed Sharifuddin Pirzada, Ex-Attorney general of Pakistan]
1930: A DECISIVE ADDRESS: Allama Sir Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938), as president of All India Muslim League, addressed the League convention at Ilahabad, UP, in 1930.
The great Iqbal said, “Islam is not a religion, it is DEEN (System of Life) that can be realized only in an independent land of our own. I propose that geographical contiguous units with a majority of Muslim population in the northwest region of India [Punjab, Sindh, NW Frontier Province (now Khyber Pakhtoonkha) and Baluchistan] must be united as an independent homeland for Muslims. I see it as DESTINY for the Muslims of India. That will preserve our religious and cultural identity and enable us to erase the blots and blemishes stamped on Islam through centuries of Arab Imperialism. This will also bring Islam in congruence with modern time. Rule of the Qur’an will bring back the glory of the pristine Islam that our exalted Prophet and his companions had established in the 7th century. No other political or constitutional plan would be workable and no maneuvering will be acceptable to Muslims.”
A very large band of Deoband Ulema, Ahrar, Barelvi Jamaat, and most of all Jamaat Islami, strongly opposed the creation of an Islamic state in India. They said that Muslims had all the freedom for carrying on their daily rituals and rites even under the British rule and the status would stay as it is when the British leave and Hindus starting ruling India.
Allama replied they did not know the difference between Mazhab (private relationship with Allah) and DEEN (Divinely Prescribed System of Life).
MULLAH KO JO HAE HINDD MEIN SAJDAY KI IJAZAT
NADAAN SAMAJHTA HAE KEH ISLAM HAE AZAD
[Since the Mullah is permitted to do prostrations, the feeble-minded thinks that Islam is free.]
M.A. Jinnah in London strongly agreed with Iqbal and derived a tremendous inspiration from him.