M.A.JINNAH, THE GREATEST LEADER IN CENTURIES
By: Dr Shabbir Ahmed, Olando,
“Few individuals significantly alter the course of history. Fewer still modify the map of the world. Hardly anyone can be credited with creating a nation-state. Mohammad Ali Jinnah did all three.”
[Prof Stanley Wolpert, University of California, in his "JINNAH OF PAKISTAN"]
"Not a single political leader can be brought before him in comparison. Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was the greatest leader of people in the last one thousand years."
[Ardeshir Cowasjee (1926-2012) a top class Parsi philosopher, writer and historian from Karachi.]
Quaid-e-Azam M.A.Jinnah / 4-6
4- Rise to Political Heights:
1909: Jinnah is elected to represent in the Legislative Council of the Viceroy.
1913: Elected again for the Council 1913, he travels to London with the famous Indian leader Gopal Krishna Gokhle.
1913: Officially joins the Muslim League upon returning to India.
1915: Since 1913, Jinnah held the unique position of being a member of the All India Muslim League and The Legislative Council of the British government. He is considered the most respectable citizen of India at the age of 39.
1918: Jinnah married the beautiful "Flower of Bombay," Rattan Bai Dinshaw. The common interest between the 41 years old groom and 18 years old bride was their fondness of horse riding. The Parsi Rattan Bai embraced Islam before marriage. She was thenceforth called as Maryam Jinnah.
1919: The only child of M.A. Jinnah is born on Aug 15, Dina Jinnah.
1920: Mohandas K. Gandhi renames the working committee of the Congress, from Home Rule League to the Hindi "Suraaj Sabha." At this juncture, Jinnah resigns from the Home Rule League considering it a biased policy that excluded Muslims.
1920's: Gandhi promotes Hindu fundamentalism and gains cheap popularity with his antics and ‘half-nakedness’. He declares, "If Muslims or Christians slaughter one cow, we will shed rivers of blood in India!"
1921: The extremist Hindu movements of ‘Shanghatan’ (practicing martial arts) and ‘Shudhi’ (forceful conversion of all faiths to Hinduism) threaten to wipe out Muslims and Christians from the soil of India.
1929: Mrs. Ratti Maryam Jinnah's untimely demise due to Typhoid fever in Bombay. She was only 29. Jinnah flies from Delhi to Bombay.
1930: M. A. Jinnah used to say, “I am a national first, national second, and national last”, meaning that he wanted to work with Congress to liberate India from the British imperialism. Even the Congress leaders called him “The ambassador of Hindu Muslim Unity”. Already saddened by his young wife's death, Jinnah gets disheartened by the politics of hatred and religious division propagated by Gandhi, Indian National Congress and the militant RSS. Jinnah quits politics and moves to London to pursue his practice of law which had always flourished. Pointing to their leadership, Jinnah says, “Hindus are incorrigible.” Mentioning their leadership, he said, “Gandhi keeps changing his color like a chameleon. He cannot be trusted with his words and actions. He seldom says what he means and he seldom means what he says. When he runs out of logic, he calls on to his ‘inner voice’. When nothing works to fulfill his wishes, he goes on a ‘Maran Bart’ (Hunger-strike.) How can we deal with such an enigmatic character?
Sir Winston Churchill retorted in agreement, “This ‘half-naked faqir’ will never allow his ‘bart’ to carry him on to death.”
1931: Round Table Conference in London. *Chaudhry Rahmat Ali (1893-1951) a lawyer, stresses on Jinnah that Muslims in India will not accept crucifixion at the hands of Hindu extremists. Hindus were by far the great majority (300 million vs 100 impoverished million Muslims). Allama Sir Muhammad Iqbal present at the conference convinces M. A. Jinnah that Indian Muslims must have their independent homeland.
[*Chaudhry Rahmat Ali Khan, a Muslim nationalist in England, was one of the earliest proponents of the creation of a free state for Muslims and he named the state Pakistan.]
1933: Allama Iqbal in Lahore writes to M.A. Jinnah in London, "I can see a furious storm raging our way. Muslims of India have the right to look up to you to carry their wavering ship to the harbor of safety. No one else in India can accomplish the humongous task ahead.” Liaquat Ali Khan tells Iqbal, “Jinnah is the only competent, trustworthy, courageous and unpurchaseable leader who can rescue the 100 million Muslims of India.” Liaquat goes to London and tells M.A. Jinnah, "Indian Muslims desperately need your help and guidance for their very survival. The extremist Hindu movements of ‘Shanghatan’ (practicing martial arts) and ‘Shudhi’ (converting all faiths to Hinduism) are threatening to wipe out Muslims and Christians from the soil of India.” Iqbal follows through to Jinnah, “Don’t you think that time has come for you to lead the vulnerable masses into their own free homeland?” If we stay still, the Muslims will be destroyed and even Islam would cease to exist in India.
Allama Iqbal repeats," The only safeguard for Muslims is to achieve a free homeland for them. Don't you think the time has come for this demand? A great storm is coming and Muslims deserve to look up to you to captain their ship."
1934: M.A. Jinnah quits his blooming practice in London and returns to his beautiful mansion on Mount Pleasant Road, Bombay.
1936: Jinnah establishes the All India Muslim Students Federation.
1937: M.A. Jinnah has breathed a new life in to the Muslim League.
1937: Jinnah declares "Even if we have to go through fire and blood we must march on to freedom, otherwise, we will forever remain poor, weak, illiterate, and slaves of Hindus.
Oct. 8, 1938 Karachi: He says, “The British have unleashed wolves on the Arabs in Palestine.”
1938: Bombay, 3 A.M., August 14. A Hindu journalist asks Jinnah why he was staying awake so late.
Jinnah responds, "I am awake because my nation is sleeping."
1938: Jinnah visits Allahabad. He ruled the hearts and minds of students. They crowded the Allahabad railway station in multitudes. The railway traffic had to be stopped for 2 hours.
March 23, 1940: Meeting of All India Muslim League at Lahore. The Lahore Resolution (called by newspapers as “The Pakistan Resolution”) was passed.
1940: Khwaja Hasan Nizami, a noted scholar in Delhi calls M.A. Jinnah as "Quaid-e-Azam" (The Great Leader). Soon, everyone in India was calling him by this honorable title.
1940: Quaid-e-Azam introduces his English newspaper "DAWN" to fight anti-Muslim propaganda.
July 26, 1943: A 30-year-old tall and stout man, Rafiq Sabir of Allama Mashriqi’s ‘Khaksars’ movement, who foolishly desired to make a Pakistan all over India, tried to assassinate Quaid-e-Azam with a dagger. The 67 years old slender Jinnah calmly grabbed his wrist. His staff immediately arrested the attacker. M. A. Jinnah proceeds with his work as if nothing had happened and pardons him without a blink.
1943: A British author Beverly Nicholson interviews Jinnah in Bombay. Then he writes "Dialogue with a Giant: M.A. Jinnah is the most prominent personality in Asia."
1945: The Working Committee of the Muslim League requests Quaid-e-Azam to accept becoming the life President of the League. Quaid-e-Azam declines insisting on yearly elections.
Jan 1946: Muslim League registers a resounding victory in general elections.
June 3, 1947: Quaid-e-Azam gives the great news of freedom to Indian Muslims. From All India Radio Delhi, he raises the slogan, "Pakistan Zindabad!" [Long Live Pakistan!]
Aug 7, 1947: Jinnah flies from Delhi to Karachi.
Aug 14, 1947: The Hindu fundamentalist party RSS tries to assassinate Quaid-e-Azam as he is driven to the Government House at Karachi. For some reason the bomb thrown on his car fails to explode. Quaid-e-Azam declines a personal bodyguard.
Apr 15, 1948: His health continues to decline. On medical advice, Jinnah temporarily moves to a scenic place, Ziyarat near Quetta but he refuses to stop working.
Jul 1, 1948: Flies to Karachi for the opening ceremony of the State Bank of Pakistan. He asserts, "The western economic system will not grant us prosperity. We will have to devise our destiny on the principle of human equality and social justice." This was the last official engagement of M.A. Jinnah.
Aug 29, 1948: "I have completed my mission." (Ziyarat).
Sep 11, 1948: Flies back to Karachi.
Sep 11, 1948, 10:20 PM: The great leader breathes his last at the Government House in Karachi. Two specialist doctors, two nurses, close family members and three associates present.