Three posts on evolution form VOL II of my book series, read all and then comment.
Evolution Or ‘BE’ From The Qur'an
Reading the Qur’an, it becomes self-evident that the universe, plants, animals and human beings have gone through an evolving and evolutionary process to be where they are today. Yes, Darwin’s basic premise that species arise from other species in ever more complex and improving ways is given legitimacy from the Qur’an, if not by the majority of Muslims who do not read this Book with meaning or understanding but mUunt pre-conceived ideas over it; including evolution.
Before we get into this topic and before you think that us modern apologetic Muslims are misrepresenting the Qur’an, especially over the scholars who have given us what passes for Islam today, here is the most damning critique of the false beliefs of the majority N2I Muslims; In the introduction to his history of the world written by Ibn Khaldun (born 1332, died 1406 CE,) called” The Muqaddimah” he writes:-
“One should then look at the world of creation. It started out from the minerals and progressed, in an ingenious manner to plants and animals. The last stage of minerals is connected with the first stage of plants, such as herbs and seedless plants. The last stage of plants, such as palms and vines, is connected with the first stage of animals, such as snails and shellfish, which have only the power of touch. The word “connection” with regard to these created things means that the last stage of each group is fully prepared to become the first stage of the next group.
The animal world then widens, its species becomes numerous, and in a gradual process of creation, it finally leads to man, who is able to think and to reflect. The higher stage of man is reached from the world of monkeys, in which both sagacity and perception are found, but which has not reached the stage of actual reflection and thinking. At this point we come to the first stage of man.”
I will come back to this later on but for now here are the verses of the Qur’an that made me think about what we have been told to think, incorrectly, about our origins:
4:1 [The development of human personality can be easier achieved in a benevolent society (9:111, 16:71, 43:32, 59:9). In that situation, the individual and the society complement each other (14:34). At the outset, it is imperative to know that all people have a common origin, therefore, you must consider all mankind as one community. 10:19, 57:25] O Mankind! Be mindful of your Lord Who began your creation from the creation of life at the unicellular level. There was one life cell and He created its mate, dividing the cell into two, male and female (6:99). [Evolution took place, as has been alluded to in this Book 16:8, 20:50, 21:30, 22:45, 30:20, 31:28, 51:49] Eventually, numerous men and women came into existence on the earth. Be careful of your duty to God in Whose Name you expect rights from one another, and you must strengthen your blood relations. God ever watches over you.
6:2 He is the One Who created you from inorganic matter, and decreed a term for you, a term known to Him. It is determined according to His laws, for individuals (3:144, 56:60) and nations (7:34, 10:49, 13:38). Yet you keep doubting and arguing about Him.
6:38 (There are signs in the Universe to behold.) There is not an animal on the earth, nor a flying creature flying on two wings, but they are communities like you. We have omitted nothing in the Book (that was essential to be given through revelation.) Then to their Lord they will be gathered.
6:98 And He is the One Who initiated you from a single life cell. Then in the process of evolution He appointed stages, from one station to the next destination. (Thus goes on the journey of life.) Thus We explain Our messages for people who use their insight. [11:6]
6:99 (He took care of your provision even before you were created.) He is the One Who sends down water from the heights. With it We produce vegetation of all kind; green multitudes, complex grains, palm trees, from their pollens spring pendant clusters, and gardens of grapes, olives and pomegranate; fruits that are similar and diverse. Look upon the fruit thereof and look upon its ripening. These are signs for those who reach conviction through reason.
7:11 We created you, then shaped you, then told the angels, "Be of service to Adam! And they agreed to be of service, all but Iblees (Satan). He was not of the subservient.
[Let us take a panoramic view of our common origin. Life began as a single life cell from hydrated inorganic matter (23:13). God made us ‘Adam’ (Homo sapiens, male and female). And He made the angels (the universal forces) subservient to mankind. Satan or Iblees, our own rebellious desires, refused to submit to the higher controls of judgment]
7:189 (The message encompasses life in its totality.) Recall that God created life from a single life cell, then made male and female cells, and then shaped you into human beings, males and females. He designed it such that man might incline with love towards the woman. When he gets intimate with her, she carries a light load that she can hardly notice. As she grows heavy with the child, they both implore God, their Lord, “If you grant us a healthy baby, we shall certainly be among the grateful.”
11:6 There is no living creature on earth but its sustenance depends on God. He knows its habitation and its destiny. (He carries them from one station to another until the final destination.) All this is laid down in the Divine Database [6:99, 55:29]
15:26 And We created man from sounding clay, out of dark inorganic matter.
15:27 Before humanity became civilized, We had placed in them a fiery disposition.
21:30 Are the disbelievers not aware that the heavens and earth used to be one solid mass and We exploded them asunder? And that out of water We made every living thing? Will they not, then, acknowledge the truth? [Here is a clear allusion to the Big Bang theory. Numerous celestial bodies came into being and started swimming along in their orbits. Almost all modern astrophysicists believe that this Universe has originated as one entity from one single element, hydrogen that, in stages, became consolidated with gravity and then broke apart into celestial bodies. (Muhammad Asad). 21:33, 24:45, 36:40, 79:30]
22:5 O Mankind! If you are in doubt that one day you will be resurrected back to life, (consider the process of your own evolution.) We have created you in stages: From inorganic matter, then from male and female gametes, then from a zygote, then from an embryo, shapely and first shapeless. We thus clearly explain things for you. The embryo and then the fetus stay in the womb until an appointed term according to Our laws. Then We bring you forth as infants and carry you to maturity. While some of you die young, others live to the feeblest old age so that they know nothing after knowing much. You see a dry barren land, but when We send down water on it, it vibrates with life and grows all kinds of beautiful plants.
[Recapturing the earlier stages of evolution, We initiated life from inorganic matter, the clay, and hydrated clay. Through it We brought forth the single life cell that divided into the male and the female cells. Thus procreation came into play. Further on the road to evolution - male and female gametes join, a clot, a little lump of flesh, turning into the embryo that ‘hangs’ in the womb. The embryo is partly formed and partly unformed, until it becomes the fetus and then assumes the final evident proportions. For the origin of life on the planet and creation of the human being, herein are some important references on Evolution for the research minded reader: 4:1, 6:2, 6:38, 6:98-99, 7:11, 7:189, 11:6, 15:26-27, 21:30, 22:5, 23:12-14, 24:45, 25:54, 30:20, 31:28, 32:7-9, 35:11, 36:77, 37:11, 39:6, 40:64-67, 51:49, 53:45, 55:14, 71:14-17, 76:2-3, 86:5-7, 96:1-22]
23:12 Indeed, We created the human being from the essence of clay. [Evolution 22:5]
23:13 Then We placed him as the male and female gametes in a safe lodging. [Nutfah = Gamete = Male sperm or Female ovum]
23:14 Then We made the gametes into a zygote, then We made a leech-like mass of flesh out of the zygote, then the hanging little lump, the embryo. Then We created bones within the embryonic lump, and then clothed the bones with flesh, then We developed it into a new creation (the fetus and the human infant). So Blessed is God, the Best of creators.
[71:14, 96:2. Dr. Keith Moore of Toronto, the foremost embryologist in the world, has made a change in his textbooks (‘Before We Are Born’, ‘Clinical Embryology’) to mention the Qur’anic ‘Alaqah’ (leech-like mass of flesh), seeing a picture of leech and comparing it with the early appearance of the embryo]
23:15 And then, after all this, you are destined to die.
24:45 And God has created every living creature from water. (Life began in water (21:30). Some of them crawl on their bellies, some walk on two legs, and some walk on four. God creates all things with a purpose and according to His laws. And God has Supreme control over all things and events.
25:54 And He is the One Who has created the human being from water, and then He has established relationships by lineage and by marriage, for, your Lord is the Designer of all things. [The best relationships are established on the basis of Ideology 3:102, 21:30, 24:45, 49:10-13]
30:19 He is the One Who brings forth the living from the dead and brings forth the dead from the living. And He gives life to earth after it has been lifeless. And thus shall you be brought forth. [Likewise, His guidance revives communities]
30:20 Among His signs it is that He even created you out of dust (beginning of life from water and inorganic matter – life-cell). And then, (after evolution) you became human beings scattered far and wide. [6:2, 6:99, 7:11, 15:26, 21:30, 23:12, 31:28]
30:21 And among His signs is this: He created for you mates from yourselves, so that you might find comfort in them. And He ordained between you love and kindness. In that are signs for those who reflect. [Azwaaj = Husband + Wife, that are mates to, and complement, each other’s personality]
31:28 Your creation or your resurrection is only as that of a single life cell. God is Hearer, Seer.
32:6 Such is the Knower of the Invisible and the Visible, the Mighty, the Merciful,
32:7 Who created everything in perfect balance. Thus He initiated the creation of the humans from hydrated inorganic matter.
32:8 Then He made him to be reproduced out of the essence of a mere fluid. [The inorganic matter was hydrated and life was initiated from its extract. Eventually, the evolution reached a point when procreation with male and female gametes was established. 37:11]
32:9 (Then emergent evolution took place that distinguished humans from the animal kingdom.) He shapes him in accordance with what he is meant to be, and breathes into him of His Energy. And thus (O Mankind) He gives you the faculties of hearing, sight, reasoning and feelings. Yet, how seldom are you grateful by making the best use of your perceptual and conceptual faculties! [Af’idah = Minds = Intellect = Faculty of reasoning including feelings. 17:36, 45:23, 46:26]
35:11 (Recall your common humble origin.) God created you from dust, then from male and female gametes, and then He makes you pairs. And no female becomes pregnant, nor gives birth without His knowledge (according to His appointed laws in nature, without exceptions). No one lives long, and no one lives short, but by His laws. All this is easy for God. [3:144. Nutfah = Gamete, male or female. Commonly misunderstood as sperm or semen, it is a common gender]
36:77 Does not man realize that We created him from male and female gametes? Yet, he stands forth as an open contender of truth! [Nutfah = Gamete, male or female, sperm or ovum]
37:11 Ask them, “Are they more difficult to create, or the other beings We have created? We created the humans from hydrated clay.
39:6 He has created you all out of one living entity (from a single life cell) - and fashioned similarly its mate, male and female (6:99). And He has bestowed upon you livestock of eight kinds in pairs. (Sheep, goat, camel, cow - male and female, the common permissible livestock 6:144-146). He creates you in the bellies of your mothers, creation after creation, in threefold depths of darkness (the abdominal wall, the uterine wall and the embryonic sac). Such is God, your Lord! Unto Him belongs the Kingdom. There is no god but He. How, then, can you sway like errant winds!
[With modern science in mind, we can understand the livestock sentence as eight organisms in pairs (Two strands of DNA held together in the early stages of conception, four for DNA and four for RNA). Nafs = Self, Mind, Psyche, Soul, Human being, Living entity, Person, Humankind, Essence of life, Personality, Mental faculty, Ego, I, Me, I-am-ness, Personal identity, Animate object. Nafsinwwaahidah = A single life-cell. Minha zawjaha = Mate out of its own kind = Mate, male and female = Companions very much alike = Similar in essence. 49:13]
40:64 God is the One Who rendered the earth a dwelling place for you and the atmosphere a canopy, and formed you, and formed you so well, and provided you with decent things of life. Such is God, your Lord. Most Exalted, then, is God, the Lord of the Worlds. [Samaa = Sky = Canopy = Atmosphere that protects against extremes of heat and cold and meteorites. 21:32]
40:65 He is the Ever-Living; there is no god but He. Call then, upon Him alone, sincere in Deen (the Divine System of Life). All praise is due to God, Lord of all the worlds! [‘No god but He’ = God alone is the Sovereign in the heavens and earth = God alone is Worthy of obedience and service = Only His laws are operational in the Universe = He is the ultimate Law-Giver to humanity]
40:66 Say, "I am forbidden to obey those to whom you call upon instead of God, since all evidence of the truth has come to me from my Lord and I am commanded to submit to the Lord of the Worlds.”
40:67 He is the One Who created you from dust, then from the gametes, then from an embryo, and then He brings you forth as an infant. And then you attain full strength and afterward you grow old; though some of you die earlier. All this He ordains so that you reach a term appointed, and along the way, develop your insight. [22:5]
51:49 And all things We created in pairs and in opposites (such that one complements the other), so that you may reflect.
53:45 viii He is the One Who creates the two companions, the male and the female (pairs and opposites among His creation),
53:46 From gametes that unite.
55:14 He created the human (initially) out of sounding inorganic matter, like pottery. [Human evolution: 2:30, 6:2, 7:189, 15:26-27, 22:5, 23:12-13, 25:54, 32:7-9, 35:11, 37:11, 71:17]
76:1 Has there not passed over man an era when he was not even worth mentioning?
76:2 We have created the human being from marked out cells, male and female gametes, that joined. Then We passed him through subtle changes. And then We made him a being endowed with hearing and sight.
86:5 Let the human being, then, consider out of what he has been created.
[And realize the common origin of all mankind. Has there not passed over man an era when he was not even worth mentioning? 76:1]
86:6 He has been created from turbulent water. [21:30, 24:25]
86:7 That issued from between tough rocks and mingled dust.
[Sulb = Hard = Tough = Strong, Rocky, as given in Taajil ‘Uroos and Muheet. Turaab = Dust, with Turaaib as its plural in Taajil Urus. Mountains, rocky as pegs, along with the glacier systems and snow tops and sources of rivers, have been described as water reservoirs in many verses: 13:3, 15:19, 31:10, 39:5, 77:27, 79:28-30,
88:20. For the origin of life on the planet and creation of the human being, including the beginning of life through water, dust, hydrated inorganic matter etc, here are given some important references for the research minded reader: 4:1, 6:2, 6:38, 6:99, 7:11, 11:6, 11:61, 15:26, 21:30, 23:12-14, 24:45, 25:54, 30:20, 31:28, 32:7-9, 35:11, 36:77, 39:6, 40:64-67, 51:49, 53:45, 55:14, 71:14, 76:2-3, 86:5-7, 96:1-2. My rendition of three terms used in 86:6-7 respectfully differs from other translations. We know how valuable the principle of Tasreef-il-Ayaat is.
Now, here are those three terms along with their erroneous translations:
- ‘Ma-in-Dafiq’: A drop emitted, seminal fluid or gushing fluid.
‘Sulb’: Man’s ribs, man's loins.
- ‘Turaib’: Pelvic arch of woman, back-bone and the ribs, spine and the viscera of man and/or woman, sacrum of man or woman. But keeping in view the lexicon and the Tasreef given above, my humble rendition of these verses is probably more sound and reflects the original Magnificence to an extent]
96:1 Read! With the Name of your Lord Who created.
96:2 Created man from a zygote.
[And passed him through the embryonic stages 23:13-14. Endowed him with perceptual and conceptual faculties 32:7-9. Gave him the free will 76:2-3, 90:8-10. Distinguished him from the rest of the animal kingdom 47:12. For a comprehensive overview of man’s creation from the very beginning, water and the inorganic matter, and onward please see 22:5]
Before I go into this topic I would like to remind you that I am a believer in the Supreme Creator of the Universe, Allah, and for proof of this turn to any chapter of any of my books. I have no doubt about where I have come from and to whom I owe everything. Let us proceed.
Modern day science is at odds with the beliefs of fundamentalist Christians and Muslims over the issue of evolution. Christian fundamentalists take the literal word of the Bible and believe that a single person, Adam, was created by Allah around ten thousand years ago. They base their beliefs solely on the Bible and ignore the increasing amount of scientific evidence that gives the age of universe at around 14 billion years old, and the earth at around 4.5 billion years. Some even believe that human beings walked the earth with dinosaurs which then died out during Noah’s flood! There was even an attempt by some Christians to claim that human footprints were in rocks containing fossilised dinosaur prints in Texas to show the two lived together! [The Paluxy River footprints]. The fact that dinosaur fossils are hundreds of millions of years old is immaterial to them; God created the earth and no amount of evidence to disprove the man-made Bible is going to move them from their false beliefs. Some have even said that at the time of creation the laws of physics were different so that days were millions of years and that is why there is an apparent discrepancy in the physical evidence we see today!
To add fuel to the fire, atheists have jumped on the evolution bandwagon and claim that everything can now be explained by science (a dirty word for the religious fanatics) and this does not involve a God. This was even more prevalent before the evidence for the “Big Bang” which started the universe off, since some believed in an eternal universe where there was no need for a God; it always existed and did not come into existence, which eliminates the tricky question of what started it off in the first place. Also, some say that in order to make sense of where this universe came from we only confuse matters further by saying God created it; they ask “where did God come from?” A Supreme entity that is God is less likely than a universe that came from nothing and you can keep adding to this by saying “what created the creator of God?” The true concept of |God, Allah, removes much of their arguments and I will not give proofs for His existence here but suffice to say that when we have a human made mental image of God sitting on His throne supervising our affairs from above (similar to the Greek gods on Mount Olympus) then the questions just posed is a simpletons answer to the creation and evolution of the universe.
“The survival of the fittest” part of evolution has also been used to justify the massacre of the Jews, the Gypsies of Eastern Europe, the Aborigines and many other primitive peoples, since if they are not able to survive in this world then this is a natural purging process! Of course, Darwin is blamed for everything, even though his study of humanity led to him to say that all men are one human species so equally entitled to respect and human rights. Also, before Darwin were there no tyrants and mass murderers? Did the Greeks, two and a half thousand years ago not say that they were superior to all nations, as did the Aryans/Persians, etc. etc? Muslims themselves believed in the “House of Islam” and the uncivilised “House of War”, where these latter peoples could be and were enslaved, being less equal to them. Darwinism is just another in a long line of excuses for genocide and enslavement which uncontrolled human nature perpetrates upon themselves. Politics is the root cause of most conflicts and not religious belief or lack of faith!
The most regrettable thing about this is that modern Muslims are equally ignorant about evolution as the Bible Thumpers are and turn to unauthentic hadith and a wrong understanding of the Qur’an to counter the scientific evidence. I would like to quote from Bukhari first to show you what I am up against:-
Bukhari Volume 4, Book 55, Number 543: Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "Allah created Adam, making him 60 cubits tall. When He created him, He said to him, "Go and greet that group of angels, and listen to their reply, for it will be your greeting (salutation) and the greeting (salutations) of your offspring." So, Adam said (to the angels), As-Salamu Alaikum (i.e. Peace be upon you). The angels said, "As-salamu Alaika wa Rahmatu-l-lahi" (i.e. Peace and Allah's Mercy be upon you). Thus the angels added to Adam's salutation the expression, “Wa Rahmatu-l-lahi”. Any person who will enter Paradise will resemble Adam (in appearance and figure). People have been decreasing in stature since Adam's creation.
And here is the Qur’an as my guide on how to deal with the above:-
27:64 Nay, who is it that initiates creation, and then reproduces it? And who is it that provides for you from the heaven and the earth – any god besides God? Say, “If you think so bring your evidence if you are men of truth.” [23:117]
Where are the 60 cubit graves of our ancestors? The Qur’an asks you to always bring proof of your beliefs and utterances so where are they? They must have disappeared, how convenient. The grave of Abraham is apparently in the Middle East and he was closer to “Adam” than us but how big was he? He seems to be of normal size so how have we been getting smaller ever since Adam? (The heights of Roman soldiers were recorded two thousand years ago and it shows that they were on average smaller than us today, we are getting bigger due to better nutrition and healthier lifestyles and this is proof enough that the above hadith is false). If you believe in the Adam and Eve (Hawaa) story then how come we are all different now without some sort of genetic variation taking place which is how evolution works? (I will expand on this later on).
The Qur’an in detail
Lets look at the Qur’an to find the truth of the matter to turn false beliefs upside down,
2:11 When it is said to them, “Do not cause disruption in the land”, they assert, “We are but reformers, setting things right.”
2:12 Nay, it is they who are the disrupters. But they fail to use reason.
[They bring forth a common argument that they are acting in good faith and in accordance with their ‘conscience’. But conscience is only the "internalized society", a mental reflection of the values prevalent in a given environment. Therefore, it can never be a substitute for Divine revelation (Wahi). 3:20, 5:79, 9:67, 24:21]
2:13 And when it is said to them, “Acknowledge the truth as people have acknowledged”, they retort, "Shall we accept what the foolish accept?" Nay, it is they who are foolish. But they do not know. [Imaan = Belief = Conviction = Acceptance = Acknowledgement = Embracing the truth]
The first point to note is that Allah has instructed all mankind, and that includes us Muslims, to look at the world around us in order to prove the existence of Allah. To reveal His “Signs” as a means to better understand ourselves mentally as well as physically; to advance, brothers and sisters, and not stagnate or go backwards.
2:163 Remember, your God is One God. There is no god but He, the Beneficent, the Merciful.
[It is only His laws that are operative in the entire Universe, and any nations falling in conflict with His laws will suffer ultimate self-destruction. 1:1-2, 6:45. Al-Ilah = God = The Sovereign = The One Worthy of service, obedience and worship = The Supreme Master. Ilah = Refers to the One True God = It also indicates a false god, depending upon the context]
2:164 (God never ordains blind faith.) Indeed, there are ample signs in the creation of the heavens and earth, the alternation of the night and the day, the ships that roam the ocean for the benefit of mankind, the water that God sends down from the heights, thereby giving life to the land after it had been lifeless, in dispersing a great variety of creatures therein, in the currents of winds and the clouds made subservient between the high atmosphere and the earth. All these are clear signs for those who use their intellect.
[Einstein correctly pointed out, “The Universe is too organized to be the result of an accident.” See 6:73. Sama = Sky = Heaven = Atmosphere = Canopy = Height. 35:27-28]
2:165 Yet, among mankind there are those who choose others as equals to God. They love them as they should love God. But the believers are staunch in their love for God. Oh, if the transgressors could see themselves when they face the doom - They would then realize that all power belongs to God alone and that God is Stern in punishment.
[3:30-31, 7:3. In the Qur’an, reverence or love of God invariably denotes obeying His commands. Hubb = Love = Adoring by obeying = To revere by following commands. Nidd = False god = One who tries to play god. Example: Pharaoh tried to equal God 43:51. Andaad = Those who play god = Political tyrants = Religious leaders who issue edicts contrary to the Divine revelation. God being stern in punishment means His Law of Requital favoring none]
2:166 Then those who were followed (the political and religious leaders) will renounce their followers, as soon as they see the impending doom, and all their mutual bonds will be rent asunder.
2:167 The followers will say, “If a return were possible for us, we would renounce them as they have renounced us.” Thus will God let them experience their own deeds as anguish; but they will not emerge from the fire of Regret.
2:168 (Declaring things permissible or forbidden is trying to ‘rival’ God.) O Mankind! Partake and enjoy the lawful and decent (Halalan Tayyeba) things of the earth, and do not follow the footsteps of the Satan. Indeed, he is an open enemy to you.
[Satan, the rebellious desires, and satanic people lead people into transgressing. Mubeen = Open = Obvious = Known = Sure 7:22]
2:169 He teaches you to create inequities in the society, lewdness and stinginess amounting to shame, and that you should say about God what you do not know.
[Fahasha = Lewdness = Stinginess to the point of shame = Indecent acts. The satans in the society set up rules contrary to the Divine revelation. They make their own lists of permissible and forbidden and teach people that accumulation of wealth is perfectly alright. Nay, spend on God’s servants all that is beyond your needs. 2:21-22, 2:219, 41:10]
2:170 When it is said to them, "Follow what God has revealed", they say, "Nay! We will follow the ways of our ancestors.” What! Even though their ancestors (and the ancient Imams) were lacking in understanding and were not rightly guided?
[5:104, 10:78, 11:62, 11:87, 21:53, 34:43, 38:7, 43:23. Hudan and derivatives = Prominent = Bright = Lighted = Clearly visible = Leading = Guidance = Lighthouse = A well-lit road = A landmark of identification in the desert or sea]
This makes it clear what we should be doing; follow the teachings of Allah Who will guide us to a better way of life, where everything He has created is there for our benefit. If we do not do this then we are following the way of those who do not bow down to the Will of Allah, following the Iblis, or evil intentions of our hearts. “Wise” people look around and do not reject what they see because it is not consistent with what their ancestors have told them but change their beliefs as new “Signs of Allah” are revealed through scientific investigations. There are no other explanations for the above verses but if we do not read and understand them then how can we obtain “enlightenment”? Muslims ruled over the most advanced civilisation at one time and when they collectively stopped searching for the how, why, where and when of this world they were quickly overtaken by the rejecters of truth (Kafirs). Why are we subjugated by the “infidels” when there are enough “Alims” reciting the Qur’an twenty four hours a day, seven days a week? Something must have gone wrong and the biggest mistake was and still is to take our ancestors as lords and masters of our beliefs and practices. This fate happened to the Jews, the Christians and every other pagan, man made religion. We still have the uncorrupted last word of Allah to teach us but we have made it subordinate to false hadith. This is waht the Qur’an says is wrong with the Jews and Christians:-
9:31They take their priests and their anchorites to be their lords in derogation of Allah, and (they take as their Lord) Christ the son of Mary; yet they were commanded to worship but One Allah, there is no god but He. Praise and glory to Him: (Far is He) from having the partners they associate (with Him)(Imams, Muftis, Pirs,Sheikhs, etc)