THE QUR’AN AND SCIENCE
If the Quran was “authored” by Muhammad (S) 14 centuries ago, you must also believe the following:
1* He knew that the earth and the heavenly bodies were once a single cohesive mass that was exploded asunder.
21:30 Are the disbelievers not aware that the heavens and earth used to be one solid mass and We exploded them asunder? ...
Here is a clear allusion to the Big Bang theory. Numerous celestial bodies came into being and started swimming along in their orbits. Almost all modern astrophysicists believe that this Universe has originated as one entity from one single element, Hydrogen, that became consolidated with gravity and then broke apart into celestial bodies. 21:33, 24:45, 36:40, 79:30.
If you do not believe that he had access to special knowledge that made possible this prefiguring of the modern Big Bang theory - a theory entirely unknown to the seventh century world - you must conclude that 21:30 of the Quran is merely an intriguing coincidence, a matter of getting something right by chance.
Perhaps this passage is simply an intriguing coincidence. If it is, however, it is not the only one.
2*. He must have known what modern science knows about the life on earth: That life originated from water and that all living beings have water in their composition.
24:45 And God has created every living creature from water. Some of them crawl on their bellies, some walk on two legs, and some walk on four …
21:30 … And that out of water We made every living thing? Will they not, then, acknowledge the truth?
The biological and evolutionary science strongly attests to this fact. We know that 80-85% of the protoplasm is water. The science of evolution also proves that life on the planet initially began from water.
3* He knew that things are created in pairs?
By the way, this discovery earned the British physicist, Paul Dirac, the Nobel Prize in 1933.
36:36 Glory to Him Who has created pairs of everything that the earth grows, and of themselves, and of things they have no knowledge yet.
43:12 And He it is Who has created all things in pairs ….
Let us think of animal and plant life, male and female flowers, acid and alkali, positive and negative magnetic poles, the electrical currents, action and reaction, matter and antimatter, explosion and implosion and so on. The apparent few exceptions to the rule will qualify for ‘and of things they have no knowledge yet’.
4*. Muhammad (S), the supposed "author" of the Quran, must have known about the relativity of time.
22:47 And so (O Prophet) they challenge you to hasten the doom, but God never fails to fulfill His promise. A day of your Lord is like a thousand of your years.
23:112 He (God) will ask, “What number of years have you spent on earth?”
23:113 They will say, “We stayed a day or part of a day. But ask those who keep count.”
23:114 He will say, “You stayed only a little, if you had only realized then!”
70:4 The Universal forces and the Divine Energy ascend unto Him in a Day the measure of which is fifty thousand years.
All things in the Universe evolve in stages to fulfill the Divine Plan. Some of these stages take one thousand years each, and others fifty thousand years by the human calendar. Either the exalted Prophet had some extraordinary source of knowledge that allowed him to discuss the relativity of time thirteen and a half centuries before Einstein, or we are looking at another intriguing coincidence!
Which is it?
5* The same “author” must have known that the Universe is constantly expanding.
51:47 And it is We Who built the Universe with power, and certainly, it is We Who are steadily expanding it.
The Belgian cosmologist Georges Lemaitre and the Russian scientist A. Friemann first proposed the continued expansion of the Universe. Soon after, in 1929, the American astronomer Edwin Hubble was the first to observe and document the phenomenon. Today, all experts on astronomy accept this astounding scientific discovery. The Quran had given us this knowledge 14 centuries ago!
6* The Prophet must have known that the celestial bodies ‘swim along’ in their orbits through their own power.
‘Sabah’ means swimming along.
21:33 And He is the One Who created the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. They swim along, each in an orbit.
31:29 …He has subjected the sun and the moon to His laws, each running along its course for an appointed term…
36:40 It is not for the sun to overtake the moon, nor can the night outrun the day. All of them swim along in their orbits.
It is amazing to note a 1400-year-old book describing the sun and the moon, not only moving, but rather swimming along in their assigned orbits (21:33, 36:40). Who but the Creator could have had that knowledge at the time when science had no concept of orbits in the space? The Greeks thought of the sky as a revolving dome on which the sun, the moon and stars were studded fixed!
7* He must have known that there is cosmic material between galaxies.
5:17 God’s is the Dominion of the heavens and earth and all that is between them.
19:65 Lord of the heavens and the earth and of all that is between them! Therefore, serve Him and be constant in His service. Do you know any whose name is worthy of mention side by side with His? [‘all that is between them’ = ‘The stardust’ = Intergalactic material]
Numerous other verses in the Quran refer to "The earth and the skies and that which is between them" (for instance 20:6, 25:59, 32:4). The great U.S. telescope Mount Wilson only in the 20th century has started describing the Interstellar Galactic Material. Who could have even thought of its existence even until 200 years ago!
8* He knew that iron is not native to earth. It has, instead, extraterrestrial sources.
57:25 …And We have bestowed on from high the iron in which there is awesome power and many benefits for people...
[As proven by modern science, the iron is not native to earth. It has come down from higher celestial bodies, the Nova stars. In 1920, Charles Edouard Guillaume was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics in recognition of the service he had rendered to this research.]
9* He must have known about Time Zones.
7:97 Can the people of any community ever feel secure that Our requital will not come upon them at night, while they are asleep?
7:98 Or do the people of townships feel secure from the coming of Our requital upon them in the daytime while they play?
[The Hour will come upon the Universe suddenly. Some areas on earth will have day, and others night.]
6:31 Losers are those who deny meeting with God, until the Hour suddenly comes upon them.
7:187 They ask you (O Messenger), about the Hour, when the end of the world will come to pass. Say, "That knowledge is only with my Lord. He alone will manifest it at the appropriate time. Heavy it is in the heavens and earth. It will come upon you suddenly."
10* He knew about winds pollinating the plants?
15:22 We send the winds as pollinators that fertilize plants, and cause water to come down from the height for you to drink. Who holds the stores of the Universe? You do not.
It took eleven centuries after the exalted Prophet for science to learn that winds play a major role in fertilizing the plants!
11* If Muhammad (S) is the author of the Quran, he must have known that the earth is ovoid in shape.
This was impossible to know in the 7th century.
39:5 He is the One Who has created the heavens and earth with a definite purpose. He rolls the night over the day, and rolls the day over the night. And He has subjected the sun and the moon, each running along its course for a term appointed. Is He not the Almighty, the Absolver of Imperfections?
Yukawwir = ‘He rolls’ comes from the word Kurah = Ball.
Astronauts have observed the phenomenon happening exactly as stated in the Quran and photographed the night and day "wrapping around" each other!
79:30 And after that, He made the earth shoot out from the Cosmic Nebula and spread it out oval (flattened at its poles). [Dhahaha entails all the meanings rendered. 21:30, 41:11]
All these might be coincidences. But the skeptic’s problems are not over yet. There are far too many coincidences in the Book that is supposed to have been written by a man who passed on in the seventh century, year 632.
Galileo was tried in court and imprisoned in his home only because he accepted and supported Copernicus's theory that the planets move around the sun. This is because the Bible declares the earth to be a static body around which the sun, the moon and the stars are revolving. The Quran on the other hand, perfectly agrees with the Earth being an ovospheric body that revolves around the sun.
12* He was aware of the gravitational force between heavenly bodies.
13:2 God is the One Who raised the skies without pillars visible to you. Then, upon the Throne of His Almightiness, He assumed Supreme Control of the entire Universe…
13* He must have known that even the sun is not stationary. It is fast moving to an appointed destination.
36:38 And the sun: it is running to its appointed destination. That is the measure of the Almighty, the Knower.
Until recently, the sun was thought to be static. But, the celebrated Russian philosopher, astronomer and mystic, P.D. Ouspensky (author of Tertium Organum, 1878-1947), had maintained that any science that contradicted the Quran would turn out to be false. Then, during Ouspensky's lifetime, it was discovered that the sun, along with its Solar System, is moving towards a specified destination at 12 miles per second, 43,200 miles per hour! This destination has been assigned names such as the Solar Apex and the Constellation of Hercules. Guess what Ouspensky did! He embraced Islam.
14* He knew that the earth's atmosphere is a protective shield around the planet.
21:32 And We have rendered the high atmosphere a canopy well guarded. Yet, they turn away from the signs that these things point to.
[Canopy: The atmosphere keeps in safe balance the gases and temperature, and protects us from the incoming noxious rays and meteorites.]
15* The Prophet must have known that human development in the womb takes place in well-defined stages.
Modern experts in human embryology confirm this observation. To cite one example, Dr. Keith Moore of Toronto, the foremost embryologist in the world, has made changes in his textbooks (‘Before We Are Born’, ‘Clinical Embryology’) to mention the Quran’s ‘Alaqa’ (leech-like lump of flesh), seeing a picture of leech and comparing it with the early appearance of the embryo.
23:13 Then We placed him as the male and female gametes in a safe lodging.
23:14 Then We fashioned the gametes into zygote, then a leech-like mass of flesh, then the hanging little lump, the embryo. Then We created bones within the embryonic lump, and then clothed the bones with flesh. (Thus, We designed it into a fetus). And then We made it into a new creation (the human infant). So Blessed is God, The Best of creators.
71:14 He is the One Who has created you in successive stages.
22:5 O Mankind! If you are in doubt that one day you will be resurrected back to life after death, consider the process of your own evolution. We have created you in stages: From dust, then from male and female gametes, then from a zygote, then from an embryo, shapely and first shapeless. We thus clearly explain things for you. The embryo and then the fetus stay in the womb until an appointed term according to Our laws. Then We bring you forth as infants and carry you to maturity. While some of you die young, others live to the feeblest old age so that they know nothing after knowing much. You see a dry barren land, but when We send down water on it, it vibrates with life and grows all kinds of beautiful plants.
[Recapturing the earlier stages of evolution, We initiated life from inorganic matter, the clay, then hydrated clay. Through it We brought forth the single life cell, the unicellular organism. Then We created the male and the female cells. Thus procreation came into play. Male and female gametes join, a clot, a little lump of flesh, turning into the embryo that ‘hangs’ in the womb. The embryo is partly formed and partly unformed, until it becomes the fetus and then assumes the final evident proportions. For the origin of life on the planet and creation of the human being, herein are given some important references for the research minded reader: 4:1, 6:2, 6:38, 6:99, 7:11, 11:6, 11:61, 15:26, 21:30, 23:12-14, 24:45, 25:54, 30:20, 31:28, 32:7-9, 35:11, 36:77, 39:6, 40:64-67, 51:49, 53:45, 55:14, 71:14, 76:2-3, 86:5-7, 96:1-2]
Is all this knowledge a matter of chance? OK, let us proceed.
16* Did he know that the roots of mountains extend deep into the earth and prevent shocks on the surface?
16:15 And He has placed mountains firm like stabilizing pegs in the earth, lest it sway with you; and made streams and paths, so that you may find your way.
[21:31, 31:10. Mountains are the most vivid evidence of the geological history of the earth. With the earth’s interior still being almost a molten fluid, the earth crust cooled off becoming hard, and mountains came into being like pegs as the crest shrank. Mountains clench different plates of the earth together like a peg. In this way, they create more stability in the earth’s crust and take away much energy from earthquakes. 78:6-7]
17* Oh, he also knew the details of the water cycle that remained a mystery to scientists until the twentieth century.
Formation of clouds:
24:43 Have you not seen how God drives the clouds, then gathers them, then makes them layers, and then you see the rain coming forth from them? He sends down, from the heights, hail and loads of snow to cover some ground and leave some uncovered, according to His laws. The flashes of lightning and the brightness of the snow dazzle the sight, all but snatching it away.
[The exact order of cloud formation has been described in this verse. Also, the fact that clouds are layered has been discovered only in the last century through aviation technology and satellites.]
30:48 It is God Who sends forth the winds so that they raise a cloud, and then He spreads it along the high atmosphere according to His laws. And causes it to break up, and you see rain pour down from within it. And when He makes it fall on His servants by His laws, they rejoice.
23:18 We send down from the sky water in due measure, and We cause it to soak in the soil. And certainly, We are Able to drain it off.
43:11 And He is the One Who sends down water from the sky in due measure. And We revive with it many a dead land, thus will you be brought forth.
The Water Cycle is very precise and balanced. The knowledge that rain does not fall in a random pattern, but in due measure through the Water Cycle, is something only recent science has understood. No one knew of a possible Water Cycle in the exalted Prophet’s times and centuries after. The great Greek philosophers had postulated the presence of underground conduits (Abyss tartarus) that drained the subsoil water to the oceans, and their views had never been challenged until the advent of the Quran. Other stalwarts maintained that the amount of water on earth increased with every rainfall!
18* He must have known about The Seven Heights.
This may apply to the cosmic orbits as well as to the earth’s atmosphere.
2:29 He is the One Who has created for you whatever is on earth – all of it. And He has applied His Design to the sky and fashioned it in several ascending heights. He is the Supreme Knower of what all things are destined to be.
[The subject of seven ascending heights is still under scientific investigation, but many astrophysicists already believe in it. 11:7, 53:31, 57:1-2. Saba' indicates seven or several. Thinking of the earth’s atmosphere, it contains seven layers: The Troposphere, Stratosphere, Ozone Layer, Mesosphere, Thermosphere, Ionosphere and the Exosphere. This has only been discovered in the last century. The Quran repeatedly emphasizes the importance of scientific observation and intellectual inquiry. 3:191, 7:185, 17:36, 88:17-21]
23:17 We have created above you seven celestial orbits, and We are never unaware of the creation.
19* He had intricate knowledge of the brain and its functions.
96:15 Let him beware! If he does not desist, We will seize him by the forelock (to a state of humiliation).
96:16 A forelock that is given to denial and committing fault upon fault.
Forelock, pointing to the frontal lobes of the brain, indicates all cognitive abilities. Who knew 1400 years ago that the cognitive function was located in the frontal lobes of the brain?
20* How about the finger tips?
75:4 We have the power to restore his very finger tips.
Science came to know about the uniqueness of the fingerprints only in the 19th century. Even twins have their own uniquely different fingerprints.
21* The supposed “author” of the Quran must have known what modern oceanographers have now learned: There are huge bodies of water that meet but do not mix with each other.
25:53 And He is the One Who has given freedom of movement to the two kinds of great bodies of water. One is palatable and fresh, the other salty and bitter. Yet, He has made a barrier between them, a barrier that is not to be crossed.
55:19 He has let free the two seas. They meet. [19:20, 25:53]
55:20 Yet, there is a barrier between them that they cannot exceed.
The great bodies of salt water and fresh water do not mix. Otherwise, we would not have the only 0.5 percent drinkable of all water present on earth.
Without this barrier all water on earth would have been undrinkable. It is noteworthy that Surah 55 calls this barrier a blessing of the Beneficent.
22* He also knew that oceans have complex subsurface wave pattern.
24:40 Or like total darkness in the midst of a deep ocean, with waves upon waves and a thick cloud above - darkness upon darkness. When he holds out his hand, he can barely see it . ...
[Light consists of several wavelengths. In deep waters, each wavelength can only penetrate to a certain depth. In this way, light loses its intensity per layer, darkness over darkness. There is recent scientific observation of a phenomenon called ‘internal waves’ which is created in different densities in the deep water where the layers of water have their own wave structure, waves upon waves. Captain Dr. Bernard Jarman, a renowned oceanographer, upon reading this verse, asked, “Oh, was this man Muhammad a sailor who had been through storms?” On learning that he only lived in a desert, Dr. Jarman embraced Islam in 1923.]
23* Could anyone in the middle of a desert know the existence of atoms with certainty in the 7th century?
34:3 ---. Not an atom's weight in the heavens and the earth, escapes His Knowledge ….
Finished? Not yet.
24* Even things smaller than an atom!
Did anyone know that until the 20th century? Did the Prophet have an electron microscope? Did he know that every atom has electrons and protons? Now see what 10:61 has to say.
10:61 Not an atom's weight in the Low nor in the Height escapes your Lord's knowledge. Nor, a thing smaller or bigger, everything is recorded in a clear Database. [Smaller than atom: Who could think of electrons and protons in the 7th century?]
25* How could the Prophet have known that the sun is the source of light, while the moon only reflects that light?
25:61 Blessed is He Who set up in the sky great constellations, and put therein a radiant Lamp, and a Moon shining with light.
While the Bible conveniently refers to the sun and the moon as the greater light and the lesser light and moves on, the Quran strikingly terms the sun as Siraj. "Siraj" means a lamp that gives off its own light. But the moon is Munir that refers to a body that reflects light! [27:61, 71:15, 78:12]
26* Was he aware that in communities of honeybees, only the females are workers?
(The Arabic verbs here can connect only to females).
16:68 And consider how your Lord inspired the bee, “Build for yourself dwellings in hills and in trees, and in what people may build.”
16:69 “And then eat of all kind of fruit, and follow the ways that your Sustainer has made easy for you.” (We endowed the bee with navigational skills). And then comes forth from their bellies a delicious drink of many hues, in which there is health for people. In all this, behold, there is a message for people who are willing to listen. [Notice the female gender used throughout for bees. They are the worker bees. Interestingly, Shakespeare wrote, “Honeybees are soldiers and they have a king.” The German ethologist Karl von Frisch discovered much of what we know today about honeybees and was honored with a Nobel Prize in 1973. He humbly admitted, “I feel honored that the Muslim Scripture agrees with my research in all perfection.” The world will eventually realize that the Glorious Book is the property of all mankind, not only of Muslims.]
27* How did he know, seven years ahead of time, that the defeated Byzantine Army of his day would secure a major victory against the Persians?
30:2 The Romans have been defeated,
30:3 In the lands close-by. Yet, despite this defeat, they shall be victorious.
[Byzantine Romans were defeated at the hands of the Persians in the nearby lands of Syria-Palestine-Egypt in 613-615 CE. The war between the two super powers of the times carried on from 603 to 624 CE. Muhammad (S) had been commissioned as a Prophet in 610 CE.]
30:4 Within ten years! God’s is the command in the past and in the future. On that day the believers too will have cause to rejoice.
[The believers were victorious against the much stronger Makkans bent upon annihilating them at the most crucial battle of all history, the Battle of Badr near Madinah, in 624 CE. This was exactly the time in which the Byzantine Romans soundly defeated the Persians]
28* Prophet Muhammad (S) must have known something none on earth knew! - The body of the Pharaoh of Moses’ times had been preserved.
10:92 Nay, but this day We will only preserve your body so that you may remain a lesson for generations to come. A great many of mankind remain heedless of Our signs.
[The Pharaoh’s body was only discovered during the excavations of 1898. Today it is on display in the Royal Mummies Chamber of the Egyptian Museum]
Another coincidence? Happenstance? But the list is endless.
29* This man in the desert knew how to refer to the Egyptian head of the state of Prophet Joseph's era! - ‘Malik’ (Ruler or King), and not as ‘Pharaoh’.
12:54 The King said, "Bring him to me so that I may appoint him a close adviser to me." And when he had spoken with him, the King decreed, "From today on, you have a high standing with us, invested with all trust."
[Note the Egyptian head of state of Prophet Joseph's era is referred to as ‘Malik’ (Ruler or King) and not as Pharaoh, the title that appears erroneously in the Book of Genesis. The term ‘Pharaoh’ came in use only for kings after 1500 BC which historians call the New Kingdom. Prophet Joseph lived around 1800 BC during the Old Kingdom, that of Amalekites. In the story of Moses, the term Pharaoh is used for the Egyptian ruler. Moses lived around 1400 BC during the New Kingdom, that of Pharaohs.]
30* How did he know about the lost, ancient city of Iram?
89:6 Have you noted how your Lord dealt with ‘Aad?
89:7 Those whose capital was Iram, the city of towers and lofty mansions. 89:8 The like of which (the towers and castles) were never built in other cities. [26:128-134]
[‘Iram’ were the generation of Iram, son of Sam, son of Noah. The capital of the nation of ‘Aad bears the same name, Iram, and now lies buried in Al-Ahqaf, the Sand-dunes of Southern Arabia. 46:21. Its ancient existence was discovered through archaeology only in 1990.]
46:21 And remember the brother of ‘Aad when he warned his people in their Land of Sand-dunes. Warners came and went before and after him, saying, “Serve none but God. I fear for you the retribution of a Tremendous Day.”
31* He knew that the huge flood that had destroyed the ancient Kingdom of Sheba, came from their dam system.
This fact was similarly discovered by modern archeology.
34:15 The People of Sheba had a homeland that was a marvel, with gardens everywhere on the right and the left (Yemen-Somalia-Abyssinia). “Enjoy what your Sustainer has provided for you, and render thanks to Him for a goodly land and a Sustainer Absolver of imperfections.”
34:16 But they turned away from Permanent Values and We sent on them the Flood of the Aarim released from water dams. And We turned their Gardens into ‘gardens’, producing wild bitter fruit, and a thorny Lote-tree here and there.
[The ruins of the greatest of these dams, Ma’aarib, are found in Yemen, indicating that it was at least two miles long and 120 ft. high.]
32* He must have known about Haman, a close adviser to the Pharaoh of Prophet Moses’ era.
- The name Haman does not appear in the Torah's version of the story of Moses.
- The ability to translate the hieroglyphic language system of the Egyptians had been utterly lost for centuries at the time of the revelation of the Quran. And it would remain lost until the year 1799. After the discovery in that year of the Rosetta Stone, scholars were able to unlock the mystery of the hieroglyphs and confirm that there was indeed a Haman, unmentioned in the Hebrew scriptures. He was close to the Pharaoh in this period, and he planned and supervised the construction of towers and temples, just as the Quran says.
[If we believe that human authorship is the only possible explanation for the origin of the Quran, we must assume either that Muhammad (S) somehow had access to this information, or we must believe that this passage is yet another in a remarkably long series of intriguing coincidences.]
28:38 Pharaoh said, "O Chiefs! I have not known any god for you other than myself. Well, then, O Haman! Kindle me a fire for baking bricks and then build me a lofty tower so that I may have a look at the ‘god’ of Moses, although I think, he is of the liars."
Again, it is amazing to see that among the numerous scientific verses in the Quran, not one, not a single one turns out to be contrary to the established science! In Islam, science and religion have thrived like twin sisters. Therefore, during the Quranic glory of Islamic civilization, science made incredible progress from which the West was later enlightened.
33* Plant Life. The Bible indicates that the earth had green plant life before the sun was created. This is a gross scientific error. And the Quran is perfectly free of this and such other mistakes. Obviously, no vegetation could sprout without sunlight.
34* The Great Flood. According to the Bible, the Great Flood of Noah occurred in 2100 BC and destroyed all people and animals on earth. But it is a well-known historical and archaeological fact that during those times, active civilizations were flourishing in Egypt, Babylonia, China, South America and elsewhere. The Quran on the other hand describes the great Flood involving only the people of Noah. Recent research indicates that the Flood occurred only in the lands of Tigris and Euphrates rivers, which the nation of Noah inhabited.
How could an unlettered man living in the remotest of the deserts, cut off from all civilization, contemplate the universal phenomena with such clarity and accuracy 14 centuries ago?
35* Cloud of Smoke. The Bible indicates that at the time of Genesis (creation of the universe) the spirit of God was moving over waters. The Quran on the other hand, refers to a huge cloud of smoke, meaning a huge cloud of gas consisting of very fine particles. Modern science is in total agreement with this statement regarding the origin of the universe. One cannot help but appreciate that the term "smoke" (Surah 44) is simple enough for the lay person and descriptive enough for the scientist! The Quran is a miracle of literature and linguistics as well, but that is not the scope of my book.
36* Easts and the Wests. In 70:40, the Quran talks of the Easts and the Wests (in plural). How many people is the 7th century knew that the points of sunrise and sunset keep changing in different seasons!
70:40 But nay! I call to Witness the Lord of all points in the East and all points in the West, We are Able,
37* Aerospace Experience. The Quran describes the feelings of a person who rejects Islam as if his chest were getting tight upon ascending toward great height. Scarcity of Oxygen and the resulting tightness in the chest with difficulty in breathing on great heights is only a phenomenon experienced by man in the aerospace age.
6:125 --- And whoever violates God’s law of guidance, feels his chest tight and narrowed as if he were climbing to the sky. ---.
The secret in my heart do I reveal here
Not a book it is, it’s something beyond
How many coincidences do we need to get the message?
The lesson is simple: No human mind could have produced this book in the seventh century.
Please know that there are many, many more such “coincidences” in the Quran.
I have listed here only those that do not require advanced knowledge in such topics as Arabic linguistics, mathematics, Middle Eastern history and geography, Islamic history, etc.
Even with the brief list I have provided, there comes, I think, a point at which one is obliged to evaluate the Quran's Message carefully, closely, and respectfully. These supposed coincidences are clear signs to all mankind that the Quran's Message is of a superhuman quality, and therefore, it must not be ignored.