WHY PAKISTAN WAS NECESSARY:
In 1940, the British imperialism had been ruling the Indian subcontinent for nearly 250 years. Hindus formed the vast majority of the population with 300 million, Muslims were 100 million and other religions: Christians, Sikhs and Buddhists, Jains and Parsis made about 30 million.
During the Second World War, it was becoming evident that the weakening "Great" Britain would have to relinquish its colonies. Hindus leaders were determined to form exclusively their own government in India leaving Muslims as a weak, ruled minority as soon as the British left. The last viceroy Lord Mountbatten had covertly assured the Hindu leaders of his support. Jinnah had the rare ability to look around corners. The Hindu conspiracy soon leaked out. This was the only time MAJ used such forceful language, "If they go ahead with this conspiracy, we will create an earthquake in the land."
Jinnah knew that Muslims in India would remain an eternally nonconvertible, oppressed minority in the so-called secular democracy of Indian Hindus.
Indian Muslims under the leadership of Allama Iqbal and Quaid-e-Azam desired to create their independent homeland where they could implement and follow the Quranic laws that emphasize human equality and social justice for all. Muslims were grossly discriminated in India. Hindus treated them as untouchables, e.g. not sharing eating or drinking utensils. A bright, highly-educated Muslim would rarely enter a good school or college and seldom get a prestigious job. Railway stations had different water sources: "Hindu Water" and "Muslim Water"! Similar was the situation with toilets at most places.
Most Hindu leaders were threatening Muslims to quit Islam and become Hindus. This movement called SHUDHI was started by 'Ariya Samaj Hindus' in 1921. Today under the Modi government, SHUDHI goes on in the name of 'Ghar Wapsi' (returning back home) since most Muslims and their ancestors in the subcontinent have converted from Hinduism; although the Indian constitution guarantees freedom of religion.
"Hindu leaders and masses have been propagating since 1921 that Muslims could live in India only as Hindus. There is no room for non-Hindus in our country." [Speaker of the National Assembly, Mr Tundon, 1948]