Everything belongs to Allah does not mean what I earn does not belong to me but that all that I do, all that I have, I use to help others. To take this to an extreme example, would I benefit 100% with Allah’s ‘reward’ by selling my home, giving away all my money and living on the street. I think we can both see that this is untenable but if I have excess, anything above what I need for my living, then I should use this for the benefit of others. That is what giving my belongings, my life means.
In many places the Quran says that Allah does something when it is a case that everything is here, in existence, living, being created, destroyed, interacting, etc due to the natural laws that He Created when He said ‘Be’ and the universe/space/time came into being. So when Allah says everything belongs to Him, this means that every true believer will use whatever resources he/she has available according to His Guiding principles.
Parwez sahib described the middle ground between rampant, rampaging, unashamed, capitalism and the stifling, goalless communism and state ownership. The Quranic system works/will work because it allows for private ownership at a personal level, giving me the personal incentive to help myself whilst also making my mind readily accept the social responsibilities that go along with this.
The rich and powerful are not condemned in the Quran for being rich and powerful but abusing their status.
No, the mulla, Ayatullah, cannot take what belongs to you so you can keep your laptop!