You wrote: “Does the virgin birth agree with or contradict the following Quran verses: Natural laws tell us as well as the Quran that human reproduction involves pairs:”
Let us review some basics with respect to God’s powers.
[36:82]: Verily, when He intends a thing, His Command is, "BE", AND IT IS.
1. Thus, it is obvious God is not limiting Himself to any LAWS, natural or otherwise as per our understanding. THUS, “BE” IS THE LAW, if you want to call it a law. However, getting to the final form/stage of the “thing” intended - “IT IS” - may take time as we understand it, and thus can be thought in terms of when, through which process, for us mortals and not IF.
[3:59]: The similitude of Jesus before Allah is as that of Adam; He created him from dust, then said to him: "BE", AND IT IS.
2. Creation of Adam started with the command ‘BE”, and man came into being in due course of time as we understand the time today. Natural laws came into being as a result of the command “BE”. Part of this process (procreative process) is known to us all, which you are describing as “Natural Laws.” Man at this stage even cannot fathom the process, during the intervening stages, i.e. dust to Adam. There might have been natural laws during this period completely different than what we have since Adam. For example, after the creation of Adam, God created his mate [4:1]. Does anyone know which natural laws did God use to do this? Which verses did He violate?
3. Further, why is God linking together both Adam and Jesus ONLY, if indeed Jesus had a biological father? It is absolutely clear, God created Jesus through His command of “BE” as He did with Adam, either bypassing any existing laws with respect to conception part only or creating a new set of laws to do so. Thus, it is an apt demonstration of God’s powers, thus, a Sign for the entire mankind.
4. As you and all of us know the procreative natural law, Mary also knew it and she asked exactly the same question you are asking now:
[3:47]: She said, "My Lord, how will I have a child when no man has touched me?" He said, "Thus, like this – God creates what He wills. When He decrees a matter, He only says to it, 'BE,' AND IT IS.
5. Mary asked, My Lord what I am being told is not making sense since “Natural Laws” cannot support it. Then what is God’s response? Is God telling her, a man will touch you or a husband will come along, etc., so that natural laws support it? Nothing of the sort, rather, God as per (1) above, simply highlighted His command “BE”, and it will start happening, eventually getting to “IT IS.” Therefore, we see that after encounter with the spirit/energy appearing in the form of a man in 19:17-21, Mary stood pregnant as indicated in 19:22.
[ 19:22]: So/thus/then she conceived him, and she withdrew with him to a remote place.
6. Thus, God’s command “BE” to create Jesus without a man is exactly in line with His other similar commands to create other things including man and there is no contradiction with any of the verses.