Sir, there is no seven days a week system in the Hijra system used in the Muslim world. There is no Friday prayers in the Quran as well but somehow this always falls on the Friday of the Gregorian Calendar system. That itself should tell you that it is not required. Hijra calendar system is a messed up system. The Quran itself does not support this system and just as anything else in the Quran, the verses related to the year and monthly system mention in the Quran have been mistranslated, misunderstood and misrepresented but the religionists.
The count of the months with the god is twelve months in the book of the god the day He created the heavens and the earth; four of them are restricted. This is the correct system (9:36)
The simplest thing would have been to take the year (365 days approx) and divide by 12 and you get 30.4 days per month. But that needs adjustment since God is so precise in his calculations, we on earth must account for that. Exactly what the Pope Gregory did and hence the Gregorian Calendar.
The ‘hijrah’ calendar was setup for religious rituals purposes only, and its inventor, decided to go lunar counting, as opposed to the Christian calendar (Gregorian), which is solar based because this would set them apart from the Christians - to be different. Well, the decision to be different put them side-by-side with the Taoist, Buddhist, and the Hindus; all of them use the lunar system.
Now, as we consider the history of the ‘hijrah’ itself (according to Islamic ‘hijrah’ experts), briefly, the first day of the ‘hijrah’ correspond to the day the prophet fled Mecca for Medina circa (mind you approximates only) 622 A.D. Since the date given is 'circa', there's no proof that that event took place on the first day of the new moon! Take note that the ‘hijrah’ was not conceptualized until 638 A.D. (approx. again), which means by simple mathematics the ‘hijrah’ calendar was invented after the prophet lived 16 years in Medina.
As history has it, the prophet remained for approximately 10 years in Mecca after the Quran was revealed to him. That means the ‘hijrah’ was only incorporated 26 years after the prophet received the Quran.
The big religious question is – How did the prophet and his followers perform all the rituals of prayers, fasting, and pilgrimage for 26 years before the ‘hijrah’ calendar was invented. The only calendar being used then, would be the Julian (now Gregorian), and it certainly seems odd that the so called 'muslims' perform their rituals according to the Julian calendar, as the Quran never make any reference to the Julian/Gregorian months of Jan-Dec, nor the days Mon-Sun?
Since all the historical dates pertaining to the prophet are 'circa' (approximate) based, it is difficult to determine if the prophet was around to witness the implementation of the ‘hijrah’ calendar, and what’s more with all the events having conflicting 'circa' dates it turns any research on this matter into a mind boggling and futile enterprise. Whichever way one looks at it, what’s apparent now is that the ‘hijrah’ was established after his demise, because his reign as the messenger supposedly only lasted 20 years!
However, one thing is sure, at least according to the ‘islamic’ historians and writers - the ‘hijrah’ was initiated by one of the companions, and not the prophet himself, and that suggests that he might not have been around.
So, we can only surmise that when the tool that is used to schedule events, or rituals is inaccurate, and unreliable then the event/ritual that depends on it becomes questionable, or if it should ever take place?
Furthermore, in the Hijra system, there are only 12 months and they do not coincide with the year, therefore, they are completely out of sync with the seasons. In old days, before the Julian calendar was invented they used to have 13th month but the Quran forbids it.
Know that the use of the additional month causes an increase in rejection, for it is used by those who have rejected that they may misguide with it by making it lawful one year, and unlawful one year, so as to circumvent the count of what the god has made restricted; thus they make lawful what the god has made unlawful. Their evil works have been adorned for them, and the god does not guide the rejecting people. (9:37)
So the thirteenth month is not used to adjust the the Hijra calendar. This is why you have pagan inspired rituals fall during any season.
There is more about the calendar system in the Quran.
When does the year begin?
The current dates used in modern calendars to mark the first day of the year (such as January 1st in the Gregorian calendar or ‘muharam’ in the Arabic calendar) are arbitrary dates that have been selected based on specific historic events (the death of Jesus in the Gregorian, and the ‘hijra’ (migration) of the Prophet in the Arabic).
According to the Quran, the most significant event that takes place on one night every year is the “Night of Decree” in which the angels and the Spirit are sent down to carry out the decrees of God:
Inna anzalnahu fee laylatialqadri
Wama adraka ma laylatualqadri
Laylatu alqadri khayrun min alfi shahrin
Tanazzalu almala-ikatu waalrroohufeeha bi-ithni rabbihim min kulli amrin
Salamun hiya hatta matlaAAialfajri (97:1-5)
We have sent it down in the Night of Decree.
And do you know what is the Night of Decree?
The Night of Decree is better than one thousand months.
The angels and the Spirit come down in it with the permission of their Lord to carry out every matter.
It is peaceful until the coming of dawn.
This event, being a blessed night for the receipt of the commands of God, is by far the most significant and the worthiest to be used as a marker for the beginning of the year.
Jesus and the Night of Decree
The birth of the Messiah, Jesus, is amongst the greatest miracles to occur in our history as he was conceived miraculously without having a father and he could speak to people from the cradle and he could perform great miracles (with the permission of God) that included raising the dead and healing the blind and the lepers.
Accordingly, the Quran gives us some clues regarding this great event, specifically in identifying the period/month in which the son of Mary was given birth to:
Wahuzzee ilayki bijithAAi alnnakhlatitusaqit AAalayki rutaban janiyyan (19:25)
“And shake the trunk of this palm tree, it will cause ripe dates (rutab) to fall upon you.”
The term “rutab” indicates an advanced level of date ripening. The known time for this stage of date development typically occurs in the Middle East at the end of the peak of hot season and dates are known as “rutab” from the period ending in August till the period ending in September. As such, it is with this clue that we can determine that the Messiah Jesus was given birth to in the period around September according to the climate of the Middle East.
However, it is not in the birth of Jesus that we find clues to the Night of Decree; rather, it is with the night of his conception.
So she took a barrier (hijab) to separate her from them, so We sent Our Spirit to her, and he took on the shape of a man in all similarity. She said: ‘I seek refuge with the Almighty from you if you are righteous.’ He said: ‘I am the messenger of your Lord, to grant you the gift of a pure son.’ (19:17-19)
And the angels said: ‘O Mary, the god gives you glad tidings of a word from Him. His name is the Messiah, Jesus the son of Mary. Honorable in this world and in the end, and from among those who are made close. And he will speak to the people from the cradle and to middle-age, and is from among the upright.’ She said: ‘My Lord, how can I have a son when no man has been with me?’ He said: ‘It is thus that the god creates what He wills, when He decrees a command, He merely says to it ‘Be,’ and it is.’ (3:45-47)
The Spirits and the Angels Come Down
The Night of Decree is unique in that the Angels and the Spirit are said to come down to carry out the commands of the Lord:
The angels and the Spirit come down in it with the permission of their Lord to carry out every matter. (Quran 97:4)
With regards to Jesus, this event took place on the eve of his conception, thus making the Night of Decree occur 9 months prior to his birth (i.e. around December).
Night of Decree = Spirit + Angels
Conception of Jesus = Spirit + Angels
Night of Decree = On or about December
Now that the evidence has been presented to gauge the period of the Night of Decree, it is only reasonable to pursue the subject further and try to ascertain “which night.”
Throughout the Quran we are told that the god favors the night for studying the Quran and for His messages:
• The Quran was sent at night (44:3, 97:1);
• Moses saw the fire on the mount when the god first spoke to him during the night (27:7);
• the god commanded Moses to wait for 40 nights (7:142);
• Remembering the god is best occurring during the night (39:9, 73:20);
• the god showed his signs to Moses at night (17:1)
• The Quran is best studied at night (17:79);
• Zachariah was commanded to abstain (soum) from speaking for three nights (19:10).
Since the night is more precious than the day, then it is only normal that we look at the days with the “longest” nights as being possible candidates since we know that the god in His mercy would want to give humankind the maximum benefit of His blessings and not anything lesser:
Say: ‘If you were the ones possessing the vaults of the mercy of my Lord, you would have held back for concern of spending. And the human being was always stingy!’ (17:100)
Sure enough, a little research reveals that there is indeed one day every year, which, according to astronomy, is unique in being the day with the longest night. More interestingly, we find that this day occurs in none other than the month of December of each year.
The Winter Solstice, also known as Midwinter, occurs around December 21 or 22 each year in the Northern hemisphere. It occurs on the longest night of the year, sometimes said to mark the beginning of an astronomical winter for a hemisphere. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winter_solstice)
Night of Decree = December 21st or 22nd each year
Now that we have a marker to begin the year with, it is time to look at the other elements that together make a working calendar based on the Quran.
The Lunar Month
Since we are told that the count of the year not only involves the ‘sun’ but the ‘moon’ also, then we need to determine which phase of the moon (dark moon, waxing crescent, full moon, waning crescent) signifies the beginning of any given month.
And the moon we have measured it to appear in stages, until it returns like an old palm sheath. (36:39)
The Quran tells us that the moon goes through its phases until it returns to resemble the ‘old sheath’ of a palm tree - a shape that gives a curved appearance to either side. Thus, in determining the start of the month, the obvious answer is that the “crescent,” which first appears when a new moon is illuminated, is the marker, which we begin our count of the months with.
The other pieces of information we are given to incorporate into a calendar are the ‘four restricted months’:
The count of the months with the god is twelve months in the book of the god the day He created the heavens and the earth; four of them are restricted. This is the correct system; so do not wrong yourselves in them; and fight the polytheists collectively as they fight you collectively. And know that the god is with the righteous. (9:36)
Further study reveals that these four months are sequential in nature, and that they take place during the winter season(s) as evidenced by verse 9:1-5 below whereby the god gives an ultimatum during the ‘restricted months’ to the polytheists, which expired with the onset of the summer heat:
A revocation is made by the god and His messenger to those with whom you have made a pledge from among the polytheists. ‘Therefore, roam the land for four months and know that you will not escape God, and that God will humiliate the rejecters.’ And a proclamation from God and His messenger to the people on the day of the Hajj Alakbar (Big Challenge): ‘That God and His messenger are innocent from the polytheists.’ If you repent, then it is better for you, and if you turn away, then know that you will not escape God. And give news to those who have rejected of a painful retribution. Except for those with whom you had made a pledge from among the polytheists if they did not reduce anything from it nor did they plan to attack you; you shall continue the pledge with them until its expiry. God loves the righteous. So when the restricted months have passed, then you may attack the polytheists wherever you find them, and take them, and surround them, and stand against them at every point. If they repent, and they hold their commitment, and they purify it, then you shall leave them alone. the god is Forgiving, Merciful. (9:1-5)
Those who have remained are happy with their position of lagging behind the messenger of God, and they disliked striving with their money and lives in the cause of God; and they say: ‘Do not mobilize in the heat.’ Say: ‘The fire of Hell is much hotter,’ if they could only understand. (9:81)
As we have already established that one month takes place around the same period that the ultimatum was issued (winter solstice), then it would logically follow that the first month (named Muharram – note the meaning of the word ‘muharram’ … restricted - by the inventors of ‘Hijrah calendar) is the marker for the first of these ‘restricted months,’ and that the remaining three months (which are also restricted) are the months of ‘hajj’ (challenge) mentioned in 2:197 and 9:1-5.
Restricted Month-1 = The first month
Restricted Month-2 = Restricted months of challenge (hajj)
Restricted Month-3 = Restricted months of challenge (hajj)
Restricted Month-4 = Restricted months of challenge (hajj)
• The year according to the Scripture is 365 days (12:47, 17:12);
• The calendar system for the year is solar (17:12, 10:5);
• The most special event that occurs during the year is the Night of Decree (97:4) which occurs on the winter solstice.
• The month of the winter solstice is the first month;
Since the god clearly states that the count of months is twelve then we can adjust the number of the days in each month and leave the total number of months to be 12 as per the Quran. This is exactly what is done in the Gregorian Calendar. Why do we insist on not following what the Quran ordains?