You wrote: “I will make it easy for you, here are 14 points with little or no reference from either Quran or hadith, you fill in the blanks with due reference from the Quran.”
Before I respond to your confusion Jawaid Bhai, a couple of general points are in order. In general, Quran mostly deals with principles related to commands/injunctions, leaving details to be worked out by the prophet to begin with and then by others as they implement those commands. When a command is operationalized in an environment, it needs its bylaws and specific directions as to how to fulfill this command. Most part Quran does not provide such by laws, rather these be derived from either the text or by the community in some agreeable fashion. In certain limited cases, it specifies some details as well to be kept in mind, and there is a strong reason for doing so.
With reference to the element of Salat, saum, etc., what is found within the pages of Quran are mandatory or essential elements. What is not found in the pages of the Quran but people do these anyway, those are operational details perhaps provided by the prophet himself as the first recipient and the follower of such commands. Take the example of fasting. You agreed that it has all the instructions needed for you to perform this act. In those verses, you would not find whether to get up at the time of sahoor and eat something and then watch for the black thread being distinct from the white? Vast majority of fasting Muslims, do get up at the time of sahoor. Would it be right at your part to shout “getting up at sahoor” is not found in Quran, thus, they are indulging in some non-quranic act?
With this example in mind, now let us turn to your confusion related to Salat.
1. Ablution: instructions are in verses 5:6 and 4:43. You cannot do salat without doing ablution. Do you call this “little or no reference from Quran?”
Now let me ask you this: Do you do ablution before “following closely” Allah’s injunctions in Quran as per your definition of Salat?
2. Turning face/body to Masjid Alharam: 2:143-144, 149-150. Do you call this “little or no reference from Quran?”
3. Saying Takbir: It is a matter of simple common sense, I agree common sense is not very common though. When people gather for Salat, it has to start at some point and end at some point. Thus, this signals the start of the prayer for everyone to be quiet and solemn. Your salat is fine even without this if you don’t want to do it for whatever reason.
4. Most of your 4-14 are a product of your confused mind, none has any bearing if you do salat hands up/down, raise/no raise, feet few inches apart or no apart, etc. However, mandatory elements of salat, i.e., Qiam (doing salat in standing positions), Ruku (bowing down), and Sujood (prostration) are well attested within the Quran. You are generalizing the meanings of these Arabic words, in the process making entire Arabic sentences or verses erroneous and ambiguous. For the sake of time, I will ask you to take each one separately and then ask what is it that you don’t find in Quran? One at a time please.