Our Beacon Forum

Bringing life to a Muslim heritage
By:Muhammad Rafi UK
Date: Tuesday, 18 July 2017, 5:05 pm

Bringing life to Muslim Heritage
Discover 1000 years of missing history and explore the fascinating Muslim contribution to present day Science, Technology, Arts and Civilisation.

Al-Muqaddasi and Human Geography: An Early Contribution to Social Sciences

FSTC Research Team

Recent scholarly interest in the genesis of social sciences in Islamic culture is a noteworthy shift. Until recent times, the development of these fields was credited exclusively to the modern Western tradition, especially to the 19th century birth of humananities. The ground breaking contribution of Ibn Khaldun was recognized; however, the author of the Muqaddima stands as an isolated genius. In the following article, an attempt is made to broaden the field by highlighting the contributions of several other scholars in laying the foundation of social sciences in Islamic culture. After a short survey on Al-Biruni and Al-Raghib al-Isfahani, the focus of the article is dedicated to the 10th-century Palestinian geographer Al-Muqaddasi, who touched on various subjects of interest to the social sciences in his book Ahsan al-taqasim fi ma'rifat al-aqalim.

Also
A review of Muslim Geography
Al-Ramhormuzi and the Wonders of India
Turkish Contributions to Islamic Geography
Al-Muqaddasi: The Geographer from Palestine
Piri Reis: A Genius 16th-Century Ottoman Cartographer and Navigator
FSTC Research Team

Piri Reis is a well known Ottoman-Turkish admiral, geographer and cartographer from the 16th century. His famous world map compiled in 1513 and discovered in 1929 at Topkapi Palace in Istanbul is the oldest known Turkish map showing the New World, and one of the oldest maps of America still in existence. The half of the map which survives shows the western coasts of Europe and North Africa and the coast of Brazil with reasonable accuracy in addition to various Atlantic islands including the Azores and Canary Islands. This article presents the achievements of Piri Reis in cartography through the analysis of the surviving partial versions of his two world maps and his book of navigation, the Kitab-i Bahriye.

Also
Mapping the World
Piri Reis maps America
Piri Reis and the Book of Sea Lore (Kitab-i Bahriye)
Earliest maps of America
Better Directions at Sea: The Piri Reis Innovation
Turkish Contributions to Islamic Geography
Who Wrote the First “Useful” Archery Manual?

Malcolm Wright

In this article we will be looking at several handbooks on archery written in both the Islamic world and in the West with the aim of determining which is the oldest useful manual on archery. Our investigation is guided with criteria in function of which materials were selected, such as availability of the text, the existence of an English version (original or in translation) and its comprehensiveness in covering archery techniques. On the basis of these criteria, it turned out that the oldest useful manual on archery is a book written around 1368 by Taybugha Al-Ashrafi Al-Baklamishi Al-Yunani, The Complete Manual of Archery for Cadets, known in the scholarship as Saracen Archery.

Also
Muslim Rocket Technology
Humanity of the Muslim Caliphs
The Cannon of Mehmed II
Islamic Enlightenment
The Legacy of Muslim Kung Fu Masters
Agriculture in Muslim civilisation : A Green Revolution in Pre-Modern Times
FSTC Research Team

The period from the 9th century to the 13th century witnessed a fundamental transformation in agriculture that can be characterized as the Islamic green revolution in pre-modern times. The economy established in the Arab and Islamic world enabled the diffusion of many crops and farming techniques as well as the adaptation of crops and techniques from and to regions beyond the Islamic world. These introductions, along with an increased mechanization of agriculture, led to major changes in economy, population distribution, vegetation cover, agricultural production and income, population levels, urban growth, the distribution of the labour force, linked industries, cooking, diet and clothing in the Islamic world. This article presents a survey on those issues and others, such as agricultural machinery water Management and farming manuals.

Also
Farming Manuals
Figs in Muslim Spain
The Muslim Agricultural Revolution
Muslim Contribution to Spanish Agriculture
Kairouan Capital of Political Power and Learning in the Ifriqiya

FSTC Research Team

The following article presents a survey on some glorious pages of the history of Kairouan, the ancient capital of the Islamic Ifriqiya (present day Tunisia). Founded in 670 by ‘Uqba ibn Nafi', the Arab general in command of the Muslim conquest of North Africa, Kairouan flourished under the Aghlabid dynasty in the 9th century and was an important urban center of the Islamic west, with a rich architectural heritage and a thriving tradition of learning.

Also
Ibn Sina on Education
Al-Farabi's Doctrine of Education: Between Philosophy and Sociological Theory
Al-Ghazali's Theory of Education: Its Philosophy and Its Impact
Ibn Khaldun's Concept of Education in the ‘Muqaddima’
History, Culture and Science in Morocco: 11th-14th Centuries
FSTC Research Team

The history of the Islamic west offers glorious pages of contribution to world history in various fields. This article presents a survey on some salient aspects of the role played by Morocco in the civilisation of Western Islam from the 11th to the 14th centuries. After a special focus on the role played by the Almoravids and the Almohads in the geopolitics of the Western Mediteranean region, the scientific scene of mathematics, applied astronomy and geography, is surveyed through the works of Ibn al-Banna, Al-Murrakushi, Al-Idrisi and Ibn Battuta.

Also
Spain's Islamic Legacy
The Aghlabids of Tunisia
Sicily under Islamic Rule
The Ottoman Empire and Europe: Cultural Encounters
Dam Construction in the Islamic Civil Engineering
FSTC Research Team

Dams are required in most hydraulic systems, for irrigation, regulating flow of rivers and in modern times for the production of energy. In the classical Islamic world, dam construction received a special attention as an integral part of large civil engineering works. Since the Umayyad Caliphate, dams were built in different Islamic regions. This article is a survey presenting the tradition of dam construction by Muslims, characterized by a rich variety of structures and forms.

Also
Water Management and Hydraulic Technology
Water management in Valencia
Introduction of Wind Power
Pioneers of Automatic Control Systems
The Self Changing Fountain of Banu Musa bin Shakir
Astronomical Observatories in the Classical Islamic Culture
FSTC Research Team

The modern astronomical observatory as a research institute (as opposed to a private observation post as was the case in ancient times) is a creation of the Islamic scientific tradition. Since the early 9th century, the astronomers of Islamic lands worked in astronomical observtories in which they performed precise observations of the skies and produced accurate astronomical tables. The Islamic observatory was a dynamic scientific specialized institution with its own scientific staff, director, astronomical program, large astronomical instruments and building. Islamic observatories were also the earliest institutions to emphasize group research and in them theoretical investigations went hand in hand with observations.

Also
Transmission of Muslim Astronomy to Europe
An overview of Muslim Astronomers
The Muslim Pioneers of Astronomy
The impact of Al-Battani on European Astronomy
The Legacy of Ulugh Beg
Al-Biruni
Glances on Calendars and Almanacs in the Islamic Civilization

Dr. Salim Ayduz
From the beginning of the Islamic history, the scholars developed the Islamic hijri calendar as a lunar calendar designed to organize timekeeping for religious and social needs. The development of the Islamic calendar and the different tasks related to it played a leading role in the advance of Arabic astronomy as an applied and theoretical science. The following article presents a survey on the Islamic hijri calendar and the varieties of timekeeping devices related to it. A special concern is devoted to the Ottoman contributions in this field.

Also
"Three Times Greater than Venus": Ibn Ridhwan's Observation of Supernova 1006
The Armillary Sphere: A Concentrate of Knowledge in Islamic Astronomy
Our Arab Heritage in the Celestial Vault
The Observation Well
The Instruments of Istanbul Observatory
Using an Astrolabe
Emily Winterburn

The history of the astrolabe begins more than two thousand years ago, but it is in the Islamic classical world that the astrolabe was highly developed and its uses widely multiplied. Introduced to Europe from Islamic Spain in the early 12th century, it was one of the major astronomical instruments until the modern times. In this concise and beautifully illustrated article, Emily Winterburn casts a short story of the Islamic art of making astrolabes – developing the different varieties, the description of their structure and parts and their uses in social, religious and scientific functions.

Also
The impact of Al-Battani on European Astronomy
Modelling the Stars
Arabic Star Names: A Treasure of Knowledge Shared by the World
The Armillary Sphere: A Concentrate of Knowledge in Islamic Astronomy
Principle and Use of Ottoman Sundials
The Instruments of Istanbul Observatory
Education in Islam - The Role of the Mosque
FSTC Research Team

Islam prompted mankind to learn. Thus, from the beginning of Islamic history, the concrete symbol of Islam (the Mosque) became the centre of learning. The Arabic word for univeristy, Jami'a, was derived from Jami' (mosque). The following article presents a short survey on the educational role that some famous mosques played in spreading learning in Islamic society.

Also
Al-Azhar University - 1000 years of Scholarship
Islam and Learning
General Organisation of Education and Teaching Methods in Islamic Civilisation
Learning Institutions in Islam
The Abbasids’ House of Wisdom in Baghdad
Al-Ghazali's Theory of Education: Its Philosophy and Its Impact
Abdel-Wahed El-Wakil or the Triumph of the Islamic Architectural Style
The El Sayed Foundation

Abdel-Wahed El-Wakil is one of the leading voices in contemporary Islamic architecture and a practitioner known worldwide for his design of the Oxford University Centre for Islamic Studies. His use of traditional form and technique won him the 2009 Richard H. Driehaus Prize administered by the University of Notre Dame School of Architecture. The prize is awarded annually to an outstanding architect whose work applies the principles of classicism, including sensitivity to the historic continuum, the fostering of community, and consideration of the impact to the built and natural environment. Over the past four decades, El-Wakil has built mosques, public buildings and private residences throughout the Middle East, maintaining balance between continuance and change. The following article presents a coverage about the work and career of Abdel-Wahed El-Wakil and stresses the triumph of the Islamic architectural style in his designs.

Also
Atala Mosque, Jaunpur 1408
The Great Mosque of Aleppo
Mshatta Palace, Jordan; 743-744 CE
Al-Hakim Mosque, Cairo (990-1012)
Masjid-i-Jamis: the Friday Mosque of Isfahan
Sheikh Zayed Great Mosque in Abu Dhabi: Islamic Architecture in the 21st Century
Islamic Automation: Al-Jazari’s Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices
Dr. Gunalan Nadarajan

In the following essay, Dr. Gunalan Nadarajan, Associate Dean of Research and Graduate Studies in the College of Arts and Architecture at Penn State University, draws on the work of al-Jazari, the famous 13th century Islamic scholar, engineer and scientist, to develop an alternative history of robotics. The work of Al-Jazari is considered as a significant contribution to the history of robotics and automation insofar as it enables a critical re-evaluation of classical notions and the conventional history of automation and therefore of robotics. In his analysis, the author details the notion of "Islamic automation", where the notions of control that have informed the conventional history of automation and robotics are substituted by subordination and submission to the rhythms of the machines.

Also
Pioneers of Automatic Control Systems
Automation and Robotics in Muslim Heritage: The Cultural Roots of al-Jazari's Mechanical Systems
800 Years Later: In Memory of Al-Jazari, A Genius Mechanical Engineer
Al-Jazari's Third Water-Raising Device: Analysis of its Mathematical and Mechanical Principles
Al-Muqaddasi and Human Geography: An Early Contribution to Social Sciences
Merv: History, Science and Learning
FSTC Research Team

Merv, was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the historical Silk Road, located near today's Mary in Turkmenistan. Several cities have existed on this strategic site, which was significant for the interchange of trade, culture and politics. In the early Islamic period, Merv was the capital of the province of Khurasan, and in the 12th century it was the largest city in the world. The following article surveys some aspects of learning, science and history of Merv as an Islamic city between the 10th and the 13th century. A special focus is laid on the scholars and scientists of Merv, the greatest of whom was Abd Al-Rahman Al-Khazini. Besides being a gifted astronomer, he is the author of Kitab mizan al-hikma, an encyclopedia of mechanics structured about the theory and the practice of various kinds of balances, especially the universal balance, an extremely precise scientific instrument for measuring the weights of bodies and their specific gravities.

Also
Ibn Al-Haitham the Muslim Physicist
Cordoba, European Jewel of the Middle Ages
Damascus: City of Munificence and Learning
Aleppo Citadel: Glimpses of the Past
A Review of Early Muslim Control Engineering
Professor Mohamed Mansour

During the period of Islamic-Arabic extraordinary activity in Science and Technology (9th-13th century), there are some recorded contributions to the area of Automatic Control mainly in the development of water clocks using float valve regulators, different level controls using float valves or combination of syphons and the development of On-Off control. In this short survey, Professor Dr Mohamed Mansour, former Professor of Control Engineering At ETH Zürich surveys the subject by investigating the words of Banu Musa, Al-Muradi, Ridhwan al-Sa'ati and Al-Jazari.

Also
When Ridhwan al-Sa’ati Anteceded Big Ben by More than Six Centuries
Automation and Robotics in Muslim Heritage: The Cultural Roots of al-Jazari's Mechanical Systems
An 800 Years Old Ancestor: Today’s Science of Robotics and al-Jazari
The Self Changing Fountain of Banu Musa bin Shakir
The Six-Cylinder Water Pump of Taqi al-Din: Its Mathematics, Operation and Virtual Design
Al-Muqaddasi and Human Geography: An Early Contribution to Social Sciences
Muslim Rocket Technology
Professor Mohamed Mansour

Arabic accounts report that Muslims introduced firearms into Islamic Spain, from where they passed to Italy, going from there to France, and finally Germany. Muslims also developed and refined gun powder and aquired rocket making technology. This article is a short account on the development of Muslim rocket technology, a constituent part of Islamic technology.

Also
A Review of Early Muslim Control Engineering
The Cannon of Mehmed II
Attempts of Flight, Automatic Machines, Submarines and Rocket Technology in Turkish History
Ottoman Maritime Arsenals And Shipbuilding Technology In The 16th And 17th Centuries
Ottoman Mining, Metal Working and Fire-Arms Technology in South East Europe (15th-17th centuries)
Creating a 3D Model with Motion Analysis of Taqi al-Din’s Six-Cylinder Pump
Joseph Vera

Among the original machines described in the corpus of Islamic technology, the six-cylinder "monobloc" piston pump designed by Taqi al-Din Ibn Ma'ruf in the late 16th century holds a special place. Working as a suction pump, this complex machine included components that are often associated with modern technology, such as a camshaft, a cylinder block, pistons, and non-return valves. In this article, Joseph Vera, an expert in re-engineering ancient inventions, describes how he created a SolidWorks CAD model of this remarkable pump, that he completed with a motion simulation. The conclusion he drew after creating the model and the simulation is that the engineers of the Islamic tradition, represented by Taqi al-Din, had a very solid grasp of kinematics, dynamics and fluid mechanics. He notes also that Taqi al-Din's "monobloc" pump is a remarkable example of a machine using renewable energy, a topic that is currently of utmost importance.

Also
The Self Changing Fountain of Banu Musa bin Shakir
Al-Jazari’s Castle Water Clock: Analysis of its Components and Functioning
Al-Jazari's Third Water-Raising Device: Analysis of its Mathematical and Mechanical Principles
The Six-Cylinder Water Pump of Taqi al-Din: Its Mathematics, Operation and Virtual Design
The Machines of Al-Jazari and Taqi Al-Din

Prof. Salim T S Al-Hassani

In this pioneering survey of some of the machines of Al-Jazari and Taqi Al-Din, Professor Salim Al-Hassani uses in-depth analysis with the tools of modern technology to make them live again. Relying on the original manuscripts and applying modern engineering technology and graphic modelling with computers, we can see these machines designed and described many centuries ago come to life.

Also
Al-Jazari: The Mechanical Genius
Muslim Rocket Technology
A Review of Early Muslim Control Engineering
The Game of Kings
Stewart Gordon

Chess probably originated in Persia or Central Asia before the seventh century and spread to India, China, the Middle East, North Africa and Europe, becoming so acculturated that the ability to play was simply part of being a civilized person. Across the miles and the centuries, the game changed, but its fascination and the mental training it offered did not. In this excellent article, published by Stewart Gordon in the July/August 2009 issue of Saudi Aramco World, the history of chess in the Islamic civilisation is narrated, surrounded by its historical and cultural context.

Also
The Legacy of Muslim Kung Fu Masters
The Influence of Islamic Culinary Art on Europe
Food as Medicine in Muslim Civilization
Ottoman Palace Cuisine of the Classical Period
New Discoveries in the Islamic Complex of Mathematics, Architecture and Art
Prof. Salim T. S. Al-Hassani

The complex of disciplines composed of mathematics, architecture and art in Islamic civilisation has been an important field of recent research. The scholars showed the interaction between mathematical reflexion and procedures and their implementation in designing concrete and symbolic forms in buildings, decoration and design. Furthermore, recent scholarship pointed out the amazing progress that this marriage brought about in prefiguring outstanding mathematical results that scientists proved only in late 20th century. In the following survey, Professor Salim Al-Hassani explores the various facets of this exciting subject that is still full of discoveries to come. By drawing attention to the ongoing debates in scholarly circles among physicicts, mathematicians and historians of science, art and architecture, he shows how the connection between theoretical and applied mathematics was fruitful and creative in the Islamic tradition.

Also
A Discovery in Architecture: 15th Century Islamic Architecture Presages 20th Century Mathematics
Taqi al Din Ibn Ma’ruf 's Work on Extracting the Cord 2o and Sin 1o
Mathematics in the Medieval Maghrib: General Survey on Mathematical Activities in North Africa
Glimpses in the History of A Great Number: Pi in Arabic Mathematics
Logical Necessities in Mixed Equations: 'Abd Al-Hamîd Ibn Turk and the Algebra of his Time
The Volume of the Sphere in Arabic Mathematics: Historical and Analytical Survey
Muhammad Al-Karaji: A Mathematician Engineer from the Early 11th Century
Botany, Herbals and Healing In Islamic Science and Medicine

FSTC Research Team

The scholars of Islamic culture worked extensively in the combined fields of botany, herbals and healing. Several scholars contributed to the knowledge of plants, their diseases and the methods of growth. They classified plants into those that grow from cuttings, those that grow from seed and those that grow spontaneously. Great Muslim figures such as Al-Dinawari, Ibn Juljul and Ibn al-Baytar made great progress in the field, as this article demonstrates. Muslim botanists knew how to produce new fruits by grafting; they combined the rose bush and the almond tree to generate rare and lovely flowers. The royal botanical gardens contained an endless variety of plants, indigenous and exotic, cultivated for their brilliant foliage, their delightful fragrance, or their culinary and medicinal virtues. In particular, they dealt with plants in a variety of ways, which included their study from a philological perspective, but most importantly for their curative and healing properties.

Also
The Secret Gardens of Sana'a
Islamic Aesthetics, Gardens and Nature
Ecology in Muslim Heritage: A History of the Hima Conservation System
Ecology in Muslim Heritage: Treatises on Environmental Pollution up to the End of 13th Cen.
Knowledge versus Natural Disasters from Arabic Sources
Environment and the Muslim Heritage
Environment and the Muslim Heritage
Sir Crispin Tickell

The following short article is based on the notes for a speech presented to the Muslim Heritage Awareness Group held at the Royal Society in London, 14 July 2009. The MHAG is a consulting network to the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC). The theme for this meeting was Environment and Muslim Heritage. The notes were published on Sir Crispin Tickell website.

Also
Gardens, Nature and Conservation in Islam
Islamic Aesthetics, Gardens and Nature
Ecology in Muslim Heritage: A History of the Hima Conservation System
Ecology in Muslim Heritage: Treatises on Environmental Pollution up to the End of 13th Cen.
Knowledge versus Natural Disasters from Arabic Sources
Filling the Gap in the History of Pre-Modern Industry: 1000 Years of Missing Islamic Industry
Prof. Salim Al-Hassani

Most educational systems, particularly those of Western countries, teach that industry was born in Europe and that the Industrial Revolution was the mother that delivered industrial mass production. Salim Al-Hassani, Chairman of FSTC and eminent expert in Islamic science and Muslim Heritage at large, challenges this view and presents an overview of the industrial and engineering processes which preceded the Industrial Revolution. Examining briefly the vast industry which stretched from China to Spain during the Muslim Civilisation (eighth-seventeenth centuries), he presents an overview of some randomly selected aspects of Muslim industrial production which highlights not only the Islamic antecedents of many processes and products widespread in our modern industrial system, but also how erroneous is the opinion that industrial production was alien to Islamic society.

Also
Overview on al-Jazari and his Mechanical Devices
The Self Changing Fountain of Banu Musa bin Shakir
Al-Jazari’s Castle Water Clock: Analysis of its Components and Functioning
Al-Jazari's Third Water-Raising Device: Analysis of its Mathematical and Mechanical Principles
Creating a 3D Model with Motion Analysis of Taqi al-Din’s Six-Cylinder Pump
Ibn Sina on Education
Abd al-Rahman al Naqib

This study presents the theory of education in the philosophy of Ibn Sina, considered by ancient and modern scholars alike as the most famous of the Muslim philosophers. In his philosophical system, Ibn Sina outlined a complete theory of education and teaching. Departing from his view of the human being and of the relationship between the mental faculties and the body, and from a precise conception of knowledge and ethics, Ibn Sina's educational theory deals with the aims of education, the educational stages and the teaching methods for different classes of age, from infants to higher instruction of teeangers, with a focus on the teaching of girls.

Also
Al-Ghazali’s Views on Children's Education
Islam, Science and Learning
Al-Amidi's System of Writing for the Blind
Beauty, Hair and Body Care in the Canon of Ibn Sina
Bone Fractures in Ibn Sina's Medicine
General Organisation of Education and Teaching Methods in Islamic Civilisation
The Volume of the Sphere in Arabic Mathematics: Historical and Analytical Survey
Professor Mustafa Mawaldi

The following article focuses on the cubic measure of the volume of the sphere in Arabic mathematics. After a short presentation of the Greek and Chinese ancient legacies on this topic, the article surveys thoroughly the different formulas methods proposed by the mathematicians of the Arabic-Islamic civilization from the 9th to the 17th century to measure the volume of the sphere. The achievements of eminent scholars are thus presented: Banu Musa, Al-Buzgani, Al-Karaji, Ibn Tahir al-Baghdadi, Ibn al-Haytham, Ibn al-Yasamin, Al-Khawam al-Baghdadi, Kamal al-Din al-Farisi, Jamshid al-Kashi, and Baha' al-Din al-'Amili.

Also
Contribution of Al-Khwarizmi to Mathematics and Geography
Sine, Cosine and the Measurement of the Earth
Taqi al Din Ibn Ma’ruf 's Work on Extracting the Cord 2o and Sin 1o
Mathematics in the Medieval Maghrib: General Survey on Mathematical Activities in North Africa
Glimpses in the History of A Great Number: Pi in Arabic Mathematics
Logical Necessities in Mixed Equations: 'Abd Al-Hamîd Ibn Turk and the Algebra of his Time
Anaesthesia 1000 Years Ago: A Historical Investigation
Dr Adnan A. Al-Mazrooa and Professor Rabie E. Abdel-Halim

The following research article in a particular field of the history of medicine, written by two eminent experts, Drs Adnan A. Al-Mazrooa and Rabie E. Abdel-Halim, is composed of two parts. This first part surveys the use of narcotics for pain relief from Antiquity up to the Renaissance; the second part is a historical investigation in the contribution of the Islamic medical tradition to develop anaesthesia methods and uses. Reviewing some of the medical texts written by Muslim scholars from the 9th to the 14th century, the authors present evidence that anaesthesia monitoring and resuscitation were practised by Muslim scientists more than 1000 years ago.

Also
Islam’s Forgotten Contributions to Medical Science
The Simurgh: A Symbol of Holistic Medicine in the Middle Eastern Culture in History
Turkish Medical History of the Seljuk Era
The Missing Link in the History of Urology: A Call for More Efforts to Bridge the Gap
Pericardial Pathology 900 Years Ago: A Study and Translations from an Arabic Medical Textbook
Paediatric Urology 1000 Years Ago
Ottoman Medical Practice and The Medical Science
Professor Nil Sari

The Ottomans paid great attention to medical practice and they were also greatly interested in the education and practice of physicians, surgeons and oculists. Many of these practiced their art both in and outside the palace, specially in major cities; and as members of the guilds they belonged to the Palace. The medical staff of the Palace, the medical madrasa in Istanbul and the practicing physicians in hospitals were expected to follow developments in medical sciences and even promote them. This original article by Professor Nil Sari presents a study of Ottoman medical practice and science based on new materials such as archival documents and manuscripts.

Also
Highly Valued Virtues of Classical Ottoman Turkish Medical Ethics: A View From Past to Future
The Paracelsian Influence on Ottoman Medicine in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries
Women Dealing with Health during the Ottoman Reign
The Medical Organization at the Ottoman Court
Turkish Medical History of the Seljuk Era
Anatomy of the Horse in the 15th Century

Search

Recent Features:
The Exhibition “1001 Inventions” Opened at the Science Museum on 21 January 2010
“Science for All” Report Released
Join MuslimHeritage.com
Subscribe today to our regular Muslim Heritage Newsletter and receive the latest articles, news and events:
Name:
Email:
City:
Sign up
Read Previous Newsletters…
Newsletter Issue 3: July 2008
Newsletter Issue 2: March 2008
Newsletter Issue 1: Nov 2007

Visit: www.1001inventions.com

The Seljuks were the first Turkish dynasty to rule the Muslim World reviving the dying Caliphate. Their arrival marked the introduction of the four Iwan mosque concept, the Caravanserais (Khans) and baroque art that spread to Europe in the 16th century.
[topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=209]HyperLink

What is Taught
Sir William Harvey is wrongly credited with the modern theory of Pulmonary Circulation. Ibn Al-Nafis, an Arab physician of the 13th Century, explained the basic principles of Pulmonary Circulation nearly 350 years before Harvey was born.
HyperLink

Timeline
Discover Muslim Heritage through this interactive timeline.

Virtual Civilisation
Explore Muslim Heritage through this interactive map of the Muslim World.

Topics
Browse all articles and topics on this website.

Muslim Heritage Interviews

Taqi Al-Din

Celebrating 600th Anniversay of Al-Jazari
MuslimHeritage.com brings you 1001 Inventions. Buy the book today!
[/default.cfm]Home | [/about/default.cfm]About Us | [/help/default.cfm]Help | [../about/audience.cfm]Contact Us | [../about/policy.cfm]Site Use and Privacy Policy
MuslimHeritage.com | 1001inventions.com
[../about/copyright.cfm]© Copyright 2003 - 2010 FSTC Limited.

Messages In This Thread

Bringing life to a Muslim heritage
Muhammad Rafi UK -- Tuesday, 18 July 2017, 5:05 pm
Re: Bringing life to a Muslim heritage
Sidqi, ca -- Wednesday, 19 July 2017, 5:31 am
Re: Bringing life to a Muslim heritage
jawaid ahmed,uk -- Wednesday, 19 July 2017, 1:38 pm
Re: Bringing life to a Muslim heritage
shahalam -- Thursday, 20 July 2017, 5:43 am
Re: Bringing life to a Muslim heritage
Muhammad Rafi UK -- Wednesday, 19 July 2017, 11:04 pm