Mubashir has posted this from youtube, it will help with the understanding of salat.
As for the verses you quoted, when looked at in context, they speak about following what Allah has revealed, stay close to it, do not follow the wrongdoers, etc.
Dr Shabbir has translated the salat phrase as “Strive to establish and consolidate the Divine System”, which is the not a direct translation but the outcomel of what salat should achieve. Duty and closely follow are two other renderings but what has been handed down from our ancestors is namaz and ritual prayer.
Does the namaz have you reading the Quran with meaning so that you can follow closely what the Quran says?
If namaz helps us to remember Allah, do you think five times a day is sufficient or 24/7?
As birds, shadows and all in the heavens do sujood and salat, that is they are programmed [remember], and do what this programming says [obey], then how can a namaz come anywhere near what is asked of us?
Can we physically show our obedience to Allah with a namaz prayer? As the Quran does not prescribe this then we are not commanded or obliged to do so. As Allah did not give us the instructions for a ‘prayer’ verse in the same way He gave us the ‘ablution’ verse, then this is an innovation which has no beneficial end result. No benefit= waste of time. Do so if you wish, but you are not following Allah when you do it.
Here are the verses you quoted in context:
Chapter 11, Surah Hud ayaat 114: Establish the Salat at the two ends of the day and in the early part of the night. (implies fajr, magrib and isha)
11:110 People differed even when Moses was given the scripture. Had it not been for a Word that had already gone forth from your Lord, the matter would have been judged between them then and there. They are still in doubt, amounting to suspicion, concerning it. [The Word that the Final revelation Al-Qur’an, will come forth with perfected message]
11:111 Unto each your Lord will certainly repay his works. He is fully Aware of what they do.
11:112 Therefore, (O Prophet) stand firm as you are commanded, along with those who turn to God with you. Remember to be moderate in all your actions. He is watching all that you do.
11:113 Do not be intimidated by the oppressors and guard yourself against even a touch of the fire. Remember, there are no protectors to help you against the laws of God. And then you will not be helped in any way.
11:114 Strive to establish and consolidate the Divine System, day and night. Actions that create balance in the society remove the ill effects of inequities. Good deeds remove bad deeds. This is a reminder for those who will remember.
11:115 Resort to patience and steadfastness, for, God never fails to reward the doers of good. [Patience and steadfastness never go unrewarded]
Chapter 2, Surah Baqarah ayaat 238:Take great care of your Prayers, especially of the middle Prayer and stand before Allah like devoted servants. (implies asr)
Speaking about divorce,etc, so where does praying namaz fit in this context?
2:237 And if unexpected circumstances lead you to divorce women before you have intimately touched them, but after the marital gift has been fixed, give them half the amount unless they volunteer to forgo it. If the move for divorce originates purely from you, let her have the whole portion. If you men forgo it, it is closer to righteousness. O People! Never forget kindness among yourselves. This command is from God Whose Law of Requital ever monitors your actions and the motives behind them.
2:238 Guard your duties pertaining to the family life (221-237) and the central duty of remaining vigilant in obeying Divine commands. [‘Salaat-il-wusta’ is not ‘Asr]
2:239 Whether fear threatens you from without, or you are strolling, riding, relaxing in peace, remember God as He has taught you (the right and wrong) what you did not know. [3:3, 3:190-191, 4:103]
2:240 Men must testify in a written, legal will that, after their death, their widows will receive one year’s maintenance without their being obliged to leave the house. But, if they leave on their own accord, there is nothing wrong in letting them do whatever they wish to do with their own lives in a lawful manner. God is Almighty, the Wise (and He grants this permission).
Chapter 17 Bani Israel ayaat 78:Establish the Salat from the declining of the sun to the darkness of the night and be particular about the recital of the Quran at dawn for the recital of the Quran at dawn is witnessed. (implies asr, magrib and fajr)
17:73 They endeavor to tempt you away from what We reveal to you, to substitute in Our Name something quite different. In that case, they would have certainly made you their friend.
[They want the Prophet to make compromises in return for accepting him as the King of Arabia – compromises like authorizing the worship of their false deities as well and taking back human equality. 17:46]
7:74 Their pressure was so intense that, without firm conviction that brings Our support, you might have inclined toward them a little. [10:15, 11:113, 68:9]
17:75 Had you inclined toward them, We would have doubled the retribution for you in this life and after death, and you would have found no one to help you against Us (Our Law of Requital).
17:76 Since they saw that they could not persuade you, they wished to drive you out (of Madinah as well). If they had done that, (they would have lost the stabilizing force of your presence and), they would have annihilated one another in a short while.
17:77 Such has always been Our law with all of Our Messengers We sent before you. (Nations that drove them out suffered dire consequences.) You will never find a change in Our laws. [6:34, 6:115, 10:64, 17:77, 18:27, 33:38, 33:62, 35:43, 40:85, 48:23]
17:78 You shall commit yourself to reflect on the Divine Commands before sunrise and then carry on with your program until the darkness of night prevails. The Qur’an springs forth the light for you to brighten your way. The Dawn ushered in by the Qur’an will be self-evident to all. Its likeness is the dawn that brings light after a dark night. [42:38]
17:79 (As head of the state, you shall commit yourself to extra endeavor.) You shall even contemplate and work part of the night, from sunset to the darkness of night. (And your companions shall join you in this endeavor as needed 73:2-3). Soon, your Lord will raise you to a highly honored, praiseworthy station. [Maqaam-am-Mahmooda = Praiseworthy station that will be obvious to the friend and foe alike]
Chapter 30 Surah Rum ayat 17:So, glorify Allah in the evening and in the morning; praise is due to Him alone in the heavens and the earth: and (glorify Him) in the afternoon and at the declining of the day. (implies fajr, magrib, dhuhr and asr)
30:12 And on the Day when the Hour comes, those who have committed crimes against humanity, will be struck with despair.
30:13 Their ‘idols’ will not be able to stand up for them, rather, they will reject one another.
30:14 On the Day the Hour comes, they will part company. And people will be sorted out.
30:15 As for those who attained belief and fulfilled the needs of others, they will be made happy in a Meadow of delight listening to beautiful music. [42:22, 43:70. ‘Hibr’ = Delightful music]
30:16 Whereas those who disbelieve, and reject Our messages, and the meeting of the Hereafter, they will be presented for punishment.
30:17 Therefore, glorify God when you retire at night, and when you rise in the morning. [Seek eminence in the twilight and dawn of your lives. 21:10, 23:71, 29:45, 29:51]
30:18 All praise belongs to Him in the heavens and on earth whether it is darkness of the night or brightness of the day. [The Universe bears testimony that all praise is due to Him]
30:19 He is the One Who brings forth the living from the dead and brings forth the dead from the living. And He gives life to earth after it has been lifeless. And thus shall you be brought forth. [Likewise, His guidance revives communities]
Chapter 50 Surah Qaf ayat 39:Therefore, O Prophet (saws), bear with patience whatever they say, and keep up glorifying your Lord with his praise, before sunrise and before sunset. And glorify Him again in the night and also when are free from prostrations. (implies fajr, dhuhr, asr, isha and tahajjud)
50:31 And the Paradise will be brought close to the righteous - not a thing distant.
50:32 This is what you were promised. It is for everyone who turned to God and protected himself from straying. [Awwab = One who turns = Turns to God = One who repents and then walks the right path. Hafeez = Guard = Trustworthy = Responsible]
50:33 And who fears (violating the laws of) the Beneficent even in privacy, and comes with a humble heart. [Muneeb = Oft returning = Repentant = Devoted = Humble]
50:34 Enter this Paradise in peace and security! This is a Day of Eternal Life.
50:35 There they have all they desire, and therein is yet more with Us.
50:36 (This is the Law of Requital in operation.) And how many a generation We annihilated before them, of greater might than theirs! But, then they wandered on the face of the earth asking, “Is there a place of refuge?”
50:37 Therein is a Reminder for him who has a heart and listens with presence of mind.
[50:21. ‘Aw’ = Or = That is = So that = As it is = And so. Heart has frequently been used in the Qur’an in the sense of mind. But, in general, heart points to qualities such as courage, sensitivity, determination, character. Nafs is the term for mind, ‘self’, personality, Ego. Shaheed = Witness = In presence]
50:38 And (who believes that) for sure, We created the heavens and earth, and all that is between them, in six stages, and weariness did not even touch Us. [Six Stages or Eras: 7:54, 10:3, 11:7, 25:59, 50:38, 57:4, 41:10]
50:39 So, bear with patience whatever they say. And strive to establish the glory and praise of your Lord, from before sunrise to before sunset.
[Sabbih bihamd is usually translated as the ritualistic, ‘praise the Lord’, ‘celebrate His praise’, ‘hymn His praises’. But Sabbih means ‘strive hard’, and it has nothing to do with Tasbeeh of rosary beads]
50:40 And during part of the night too, strive to manifest His glory, and adore Him with constancy. [52:49, 73:20]