Pagans had a treaty and violated this:
9.1. A (declaration) of immunity from Allah and His Messenger, to those of the Pagans with whom ye have contracted mutual alliances:-
They are to be given 4months to cease and resume peaceful relations:
9.2. Go ye, then, for four months, backwards and forwards, (as ye will), throughout the land, but know ye that ye cannot frustrate Allah (by your falsehood) but that Allah will cover with shame those who reject Him.
Those who have violated the treaty are now under no obligation to the treaty:
9.3. And an announcement from Allah and His Messenger, to the people (assembled) on the day of the Great Pilgrimage,- that Allah and His Messenger dissolve (treaty) obligations with the Pagans. If then, ye repent, it were best for you; but if ye turn away, know ye that ye cannot frustrate Allah. And proclaim a grievous penalty to those who reject Faith.
Those who stuck with the treaty are not to be touched:
9.4. (But the treaties are) not dissolved with those Pagans with whom ye have entered into alliance and who have not subsequently failed you in aught, nor aided any one against you. So fulfil your engagements with them to the end of their term: for Allah loveth the righteous.
After 4months the ‘terrorists’ are to be hunted down and stopped, any means necessary, if they repent and 'pray and give charity', they are forgiven:
9.5. But when the forbidden months are past, then fight and slay the Pagans wherever ye find them, an seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them in every stratagem (of war); but if they repent, and establish regular prayers and practise regular charity, then open the way for them: for Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.
If any wants to give up, they are to be PROTECTED:
9.6. If one amongst the Pagans ask thee for asylum, grant it to him, so that he may hear the word of Allah. and then escort him to where he can be secure. That is because they are men without knowledge.
Re-establishing a treaty with the wrong doers is not sensible, though those pagans who did not violate the treaty are to be respected:
9.7. How can there be a league, before Allah and His Messenger, with the Pagans, except those with whom ye made a treaty near the sacred Mosque? As long as these stand true to you, stand ye true to them: for Allah doth love the righteous.
9.8. How (can there be such a league), seeing that if they get an advantage over you, they respect not in you the ties either of kinship or of covenant? With (fair words from) their mouths they entice you, but their hearts are averse from you; and most of them are rebellious and wicked.
9.9. The Signs of Allah have they sold for a miserable price, and (many) have they hindered from His way: evil indeed are the deeds they have done.
The pagans have no respect for ‘muslims’ and ‘islam:
9.10. In a Believer they respect not the ties either of kinship or of covenant! It is they who have transgressed all bounds.
But the pagans are asked to pray and give charity, become ‘brothers’ in deen, way of life, not ‘mulsim’:
9.11. But (even so), if they repent, establish regular prayers, and practise regular charity,- they are your brethren in Faith [l-dīni [the] religion].: (thus) do We explain the Signs in detail, for those who understand.
Now the pagans are again violating their oaths, taunting, ridiculing Islam so THEY ARE NOT AND HAVE NEVER BEEN MUSLIM, and they can be fought once more. The pagans had originally violated their oaths and are now doing so again, so they are and always were pagan. The covenent was the treaty, the covenent was re-established as 'salat and zakat', and a treaty is not prayers and charity:
9.12. But if they violate their oaths after their covenant, and taunt you for your Faith,- fight ye the chiefs of Unfaith: for their oaths are nothing to them: that thus they may be restrained.
9.13. Will ye not fight people who violated their oaths, plotted to expel the Messenger, and took the aggressive by being the first (to assault) you? Do ye fear them? Nay, it is Allah Whom ye should more justly fear, if ye believe!
9.14. Fight them, and Allah will punish them by your hands, cover them with shame, help you (to victory) over them, heal the breasts of Believers,
9.15. And still the indignation of their hearts. For Allah will turn (in mercy) to whom He will; and Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.
There is no need to bring in so-called history, since the authors of the ‘history’ were not present at the events and they gave such details about the ‘events’ that they could only have been there; or they made it all up!
There is no mention in any of the verses that the pagans were to be converted to Islam, so they could 'pray and pay charity'. There is no mention of them converting or accepting Islam, so salat and zakat cannot mean praying and charity giving!
The only way to make pagans do prayers and charity is by making up the 'events' which is the greatest distortion in Islamic history by those who find fault or problems with what they believe about the Quran and the hadith, so they mount the verses with fairy tales and group a, sub group b etc. Still makes no sense but they are happy!