Since you brought the rendition of my beloved and respected teacher and brother, here is another one from him for your consideration.
[17:107]: Say, 'Believe in it or do not believe in it.' Those who possess knowledge from the
previous scriptures, when it is recited to them, they fall down to their chins,
prostrating.' [Zaqan = Chin, and not face]
Please note three words [yakhirrūna lil'adhqāni sujjadan = falling down, prostrating with their chins to the ground] at the end of 17:107. This is a beautiful phrase in Arabic language imparting the sense that they did not take long or they did not wait, rather hurried to prostrate physically before God when His verses were recited to them. This is an example of the believers as to how they prostrate, i.e. do sujood. That is believers prostrate with their chins to the ground without hesitation in response to the recitation of God’s verses. This is the clearest and the most manifest form of complete submission. Is this not clear enough how humans do or should do sujood when God’s verses are recited to them? Do you need to look at the nature and allegorical verses to subjectively figure out what is “sujood” for man?
I may note just in passing that even today, Muslims promptly prostrate when such verses are recited to them in prayers or otherwise.
Now look at 41:38 you quoted. There is a phrase “fa-ini is'takbarū = But if they are arrogant or too proud”. Did you notice, what is the relationship of this phrase in 41:38 with 41:37, and who are those who are being called “arrogant or too proud” and/or for what they are being called “arrogant and/or too proud?” The answer is these are the ones who are too proud to do “sujood = physical prostration” to their Lord when His verses are recited to them. I seek refuge in God from such arrogance.
Please stay tuned for the “East and West” stuff we are heading that direction soon.