Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi
Ahmed Raza Khan Fazil-e-Barelvi (Urdu: احمد رضاخان,) (1856–1921 CE), popularly known as Aala Hazrat, was a Sunni Hanafi scholar whose works influenced the Barelvi movement of South Asia. Raza Khan wrote on numerous topics, including law, religion, philosophy and the sciences. He was a prolific writer, producing nearly 1,000 works in his lifetime.
His father was Naqi Ali Khan, and his great-grandfather Shah Kazim Ali Khan was a noted Sunni scholar.
Ahmed’s mother named him Amman Miyān. Raza Khan used the appellation “Abdul Mustafa” (slave [or servant] of Mustafa) prior to signing his name in correspondence. He studied Islamic sciences and completed a traditional Dars-i-Nizami course under the supervision of his father Naqī Áli Khān, who was a legal scholar. He went on the Hajj with his father in 1878.
Ahmed Raza Khan’s beliefs regarding Muhammad include:
Muhammad, although human, possessed a Noor (Light) that predates creation. This contrasts with the Deobandi view that Muhammad was insan-e-kamil (“the complete man”), a respected but physically typical human.
He is haazir naazir (can be present in many places at the same time, as opposed to God, who is everywhere by definition).
God has granted him ilm-e-ghaib (the knowledge of the unseen). This belief and theory directly negates the Islaamic concept of “shirk” which attributes some qualities only to Almighty Allah, including the ‘i’lm-e-ghaib’ or knowledge of the unknown and unseen. Raza Khan writes:
We do not hold that anyone can equal the knowledge of Allah Most High, or possess it independently, nor do we assert that Allah’s giving of knowledge to the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) is anything but a part. But what a patent and tremendous difference between one part [the Prophet’s] and another [anyone else’s]: like the difference between the sky and the earth, or rather even greater and more immense.
—Ahmed Raza Khan, al-Dawla al-Makkiyya (c00), 291.
God has made him mukhtaar kul (having the authority to do whatever he desires).
Quran and hadith studies
Ahmed Raza Khan translated the Quran into Urdu, which was first published in 1912 under the title of Kanz ul-Iman fi Tarjuma al-Qur’an. The original manuscript is preserved in the library of Idara Tahqiqat-i-Imam Ahmed Raza, Karachi, and an English translation of Kanzul Iman has also been published. Ahmed Raza Khan also wrote several books on the collection and compilation ofhadiths.
Raza Khan’s main work was Fatawa Ridawiyya which runs in 30 volumes of over 1000 pages each. The Raza Foundation under the leadership of Abdul Qayyum Hazarwi revised the work, translating all the Persian and Arabic sentences in Urdu, and published it in 30 volumes, running across 90,000 pages.
Raza Khan investigated numerous religious questions:
In 1915 he wrote a treatise describing 160 types of water which are acceptable for wudu (ablution), and 146 types of proscribed water.
He identified 181 acceptable and 130 unacceptable materials for tayammum (alternatives to water for ablution).
He was able to fill up the Naqsh-i-Murabba (a sixteen column quadrilateral) by 1152 methods.
He knew 800 names of Prophet Muhammad from books, and was able to gather 1400 more.
He analysed whether it was credible that Hussain ibn ‘Alī was able to travel from Mecca to Kerbala on 3rd Dhū al-Ḥijja and reach there on 2nd of Moharram. He investigated the types of horse, the loads they carried, the route of the caravan, the types of terrain, and other factors, and finally concluded that the caravan could feasibly have reached Kerbala by the 2nd.
Views on economics:
Raza through his book published in 1912, presented the following points for the economic development of Muslims:
Barring the affairs wherein government is involved, Muslims should decide all their disputes mutually so that millions of rupees, which are being spent over litigations, may be saved.
The affluent Muslims of Bombay (Mumbai), Calcutta, Rangoon, Madras and Hyderabad should open banks for other poor Muslims.
Muslims should not purchase anything from anybody except Muslims.
Antagonism towards Mirza Ghulam Ahmad and the Ahmadiyya Movement:
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian claimed to be the Mahdi (messiah) awaited by the Muslims as well as a new prophet. These claims proved to be extremely controversial among many in the Muslim community, and he was branded a heretic and apostate by many religious scholars of the time, including Ahmed Raza Khan. Ghulam Ahmad’s claims are controversial to this day, but his Mahdi status and prophethood is believed in by the Ahmadiyya sect. Though, Pakistan in 1974, have officially declared the Ahmadiyya sect non-Muslims.
When Ahmed Raza visited Mecca and Medina for pilgrimage in 1905, he prepared a draft document entitled Al Motamad Al Mustanad(“The Reliable Proofs”) for presentation to the scholars of Mecca and Medina. Ahmed Raza Khan collected opinions of the ulama of theHejaz and compiled them in an Arabic language compendium with the title, Husam al Harmain (“The Sword of Two Sanctuaries”), a work containing 34 verdicts from 33 ulama (20 Meccan and 13 Medinese). The work concluded that Ghulam Ahmad’s beliefs were blasphemous and tantamount to apostasy.
During the period of the Indian Khilafat Movement, Gandhi was advised that he should meet with Raza Khan. When he was told that Gandhi wished to meet and speak to him, Raza Khan said, “What would he speak about? Religion or worldly affairs? If it is worldly affairs, what can I partake in, for I have abstained from the world and have no interest in it.
Opposition to heterodox practices:
Raza Khan condemned many practices he saw as bid’at (forbidden innovations), such as:
Qawali (religious music)
Women going to visit mazaar (tombs)
Tawaf (ceremonially walking in circles around a holy site) of tombs.
Sajda (prostration) to those other than God
Ta’zieh, plays re-enacting religious scenes.
Syrian Islamic scholar Muhammad al-Ya’qoubi declared on national television his belief that the mujaddid of the Indian subcontinent was Ahmed Raza Khan, going so far as to say that a person of the Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaah can be identified by his love of Ahmed Raza Khan, and that those outside the Ahlus Sunnah are identified by their attacks on him.
He issued fatwas against other religious group such as Deobandis and Wahabbis, accusing them of being disrespectful towards Prophet Muhammad. Deobandi and Wahabi scholars believe that Ahmed Raza Khan has made these accusations due to his “exaggeration” in loving the prophet, which they claim violates hadith which proscribe deifying Mohammad.
He advocated the practice of tawassul (asking to deceased Muslims), which his opponents declared to be shirk (polytheism):
If you are embarrassed in your affairs, seek help from the inmates of the tombs, having beliefs that Allah is the one who is helping and the person in the tomb is just wasila.
Raza opposed labeling then-British held India to be Dar-ul Harb (“land of war”), thus opposing any justification of jihad (struggle) orhijrat (mass emigration to escape) against the proposed plans of the Deobandiyya Movement who wished to begin jihaad. Raza’s stance was opposed by Deobandi scholars such as Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi.
Raza Khan opposed the belief in a heliocentric system, instead stating that the sun and moon circulate around the Earth.
Maulana Muhammad Qasim Nanotwi was born in 1832 (1248 AH) in the village of Nanota (Saharanpur district). He is a descendant of Abu Bakr as-Siddiq (R. A.). From the beginning, he was highly intelligent, courageous, diligent, valiant, sharp and active in his studies and always outshone all his peers in exercises and competitions. He was the only son of his father and mother as all brothers of Maulana Qasim died in their infancy. Maulana got his early education at Nanuta. Maulana Qasim Nanotwi finished the Quran at an early age. He studied Arabic and Persian from Maulana Mamlook Ali.
At Delhi Maulana Rasheed Ahmad Gangohi, Maulana Qasim Nanotwi and Maulana Yaqub Nanotwi mutually became good friends while studying in Delhi. All of them learnt Hadith from Maulana Shah Abdul Ghani who was a follower of Shah Waliullah and a renowned teacher whose students flocked from all over the Indian subcontinent. Later at Madrassa Arabia Delhi he achieved mastery in Mathematics.
Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Makki who was a great saint of his age frequently came to his maternal home, Nanota. Maulana Qasim stayed for long hours with him and always enjoyed his company.
Maulana Qasim Nanotwi was held in a very high esteem by his Sheikh Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Makki. In Zia-ul-Quloob, Haji Imdadullah wrote about him: “People like him (Maulana Qasim) used to exist in earlier times”. He would say: “although Maulana Qasim Nanotwi is my disciple, in reality he is much higher in knowledge and spirituality than I. Allama Shabbir Ahmad Uthmani used to say: “No matter how many forms of arguments and debates are brought by the philosophers to challenge Islam in the next hundred years; the wisdom of Maulana Qasim Nanotwi provides the solution to all of them”. He was the teacher of erudite scholars such as Maulana Mahmood-ul-Hasan (also known as Sheikh-ul-Hind).
The greatest contribution of Maulana Qasim Nanotwi was Dar-ul-Uloom Deoband that started on May 20th, 1866 under a tree in the city of Deoband with only one student and one teacher. But soon became the most prestigious seminary in the subcontinent. According to a foreign observer, it is “next to the Al-Azhar of Cairo, the most important and respected theological academy of the Muslim world”. Before joining Deoband, Maulana Qasim was Deputy Educational Inspector in government service and was, therefore, well-acquainted with the modern educational system. Dar-ul-Uloom Deoband incorporated many features of the new educational institutions like division of students in regular classes, attendance registers, written examinations,
Maulana Qasim Nanutvi wrote many books including “Aab-e-Hayat” [commentary of the life of the Prophet (SAW)], “Jamal-e-Qasmi”, Tauseeq-ul-Kalam”, and “Mubahisa Shahjehan Pura”. He wrote polemic commentaries on the threats posed by Swami Dianand Sirswati the most famous were “Intisarul Islam” and “Qibla Numa” which aim to answer the objections and questions of the non-believers on the nature of Islam and its civilization. Dar-ul-Uloom Deoband produced prominent religious scholars like Maulana Mahmood-ul-Hassan, Shabbir Ahmad Usmani and Mualan Ashraf Ali Thanvi who wrote extensive books on Islamic jurisprudence as to accomplish the mission of the founder of the institution. On the political side, the majority of the Deobandi scholars and students kept aloof from Pakistan Movement or opposed it. However, there were also several scholars who played vital role in the Pakistan Movement under the leadership of Maulana Shabbir Ahmad Usmani.
The great genius and the saint of Islam died on April 15, 1880. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan had great respect for this saintly sage and wrote a long and moving article on his death.
The excellence of Maulana Qasim Nanotwi - YouTube
Feb 20, 2012 · Click here to listen to the version with NO nasheed: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mStbVHoLIGU Who was Maulana Muhammad Qasim Nanotwi [rahmatullah Aly] By ...
Shaykh Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi (r.a) | Free Islamic...
May 17, 2012 · Posts about Shaykh Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi (r.a) written by nmusba
Maulana Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi رحمہ اللہ (Part 1)
Hadhrat Maulana Qasim Nanotwi rahimuhullah alaih was born in 1831 AD in the village of Nanota near Saharanpur. Nanota was reputed for producing men of high caliber ...
Maulana Qasim Nanotwi
Hadhrat Maulana Qasim Nanotwi’s title was Hujjatul Islam(the proof of Islam). Generally this title is given to such a person who has such great qualities that if ...
Maulana Qasim Nanotwi (rh)
Islamic forum: Who was Maulana Muhammad Qasim Nanotwi [rahmatullah Aly] By Sheikh Mumtaz Ul Haq http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mStbVHoLIGU Maulana Qasim Nanotwi ...