Dear Sister Husna
If you are wanting to understand about salat the ritual, please concentrate on the following from Br Jawaid's detail reply.
9. Sal'at has also been used for a particular ritual. On the whole, whatever a Momin is doing by following the Laws of Allah, without any restrictions of time or formation, is Sal'at. But where ever in the Quran it refers to a particular action, its form and timing has to be fixed. In this regard there are various verses in the Quran, e.g.,
a. Verse (5/6) mentions ablution, which is to be performed before offering Sal'at.
b. Verse (4/43) prohibits the Momineen to perform Sal'at when they are under the influence of intoxication (the Momineen are, however, admonished to refrain from the use of intoxicants 5/90-91).
c. In Surah Al-Jum'aa (62/9-10) it is commanded: "when you are called for the congregation on the day of Jum'aa, you should rush towards Zikr-Allah, putting aside your business - and after Sal'at spread out in the land in search of bounty of Allah and do His Zikr a great deal, so that you may prosper."
d. Some specific timings are also mentioned in the Quran. Verse (17/78) directs the Momineen to establish Sal'at from early morning till late night. In this verse the word "Dalook" has been used which means from morning till evening, thereby denying the earlier superstition that certain times of the day are good or bad. It is further explained in verse (11/114) that Sal'at be established on the two ends of the day and early hours of night. Verses (20/130) and (50/39) mention about Hamd before sunrise and sunset and also late night when stars start fading (52/49).
e. Verse (24/58) mentions about Sal'at-ul-Fajr and Sal'at-ul-'Ishaa when domestic servants are forbidden from entering private apartments without permission.
f. About recitation during Sal'at, the Quran says that you should understand as to what you are reciting (4/43) and do not recite loudly or in silence but adopt a course in between. The above verses explain that the meaning of Sal'at encompasses the congregational prayers as well.
If you are looking for "how to pay from the Qur'an" I quote our Brother Irfan who responded to a question similar to yours in this way [from my archives]:
If you take a look at the verse 2:128, Ibraheem is seen as praying to Allah, asking Him how to show him his “manaasiks” (devotional rituals).
2:128 (Y. Ali) "Our Lord! make of us Muslims, bowing to Thy (Will), and of our progeny a people Muslim, bowing to Thy (will); and show us our place for the celebration of (due) rites; and turn unto us (in Mercy); for Thou art the Oft-Returning, Most Merciful
His prayer was answered in 2:125.
2:125 (Y. Ali) Remember We made the House a place of assembly for men and a place of safety; and take ye the station of Abraham as a place of prayer; and We covenanted with Abraham and Isma'il, that they should sanctify My House for those who compass it round, or use it as a retreat, or bow, or prostrate themselves (therein in prayer).
The way the salat is prayed in the Maqam-e-ibraheem is the way we all are supposed to pray—that’s the way Allah taught us how to pray or where to take our prayer from, and how many times to pray in a day.
The word “musalla” is ism-e-zaman and ism-e-makan, hence it speaks both of the place and timings.