5:44....Whoever does not judge and does not rule according to what God has revealed, such are the disbelievers.
In order to stop the “I am right, you are wrong” too and fro arguments that abound between all parties, whatever their beliefs, let the Quran be the final judge as to what is correct.
If we look at the verses of the Quran, is there one that states we can follow the hadith and sunnah of the Messenger in unequivocal terms? NONE. There is only ‘obey the Messenger’ and similar wordings that can be misinterpreted as such or are taken out of context to give this false understanding.
Are there any commandments forbidding us from following the hadith and sunnah of men?
4:87 Allahu la ilaha illa huwa layajmaAAannakum ila yawmi alqiyamati la rayba feehi waman asdaqu mina Allahi hadeethan
4:87 Allah! There is no god but He. He will summon all of you on the Day of Resurrection about the advent of which there is no doubt. Who can tell you a more reliable HADITH (saying) than Allah
4:140 Waqad nazzala AAalaykum fee alkitabi an itha samiAAtum ayati Allahi yukfaru biha wayustahzao biha fala taqAAudoo maAAahum hatta yakhoodoo fee hadeethin ghayrihi innakum ithan mithluhum inna Allaha jamiAAu almunafiqeena waalkafireena fee jahannama jameeAAan
4:140 He has already revealed unto you in the Book that, when you hear the revelations of God rejected and ridiculed, sit not with them unless they engage in some other conversation (4:63, 6:68). Otherwise you shall bear similar guilt as they bear. God will gather hypocrites and rejecters together, all of them, into Hell.
6:68 Wa-itha raayta allatheena yakhoodoona fee ayatina faaAArid AAanhum hatta yakhoodoo fee hadeethin ghayrihi wa-imma yunsiyannaka alshshaytanu fala taqAAud baAAda alththikra maAAa alqawmi alththalimeena
6:68 When you see them engaged in vain discourse about Our verses, turn away from them unless they engage in a different subject. If Satan ever makes you forget (your mind gets engrossed in their discourse,) then as soon as you recollect, no longer sit in the company of the people who confound the Truth with falsehood. [Zaalimeen = Those who relegate the Truth from its rightful place = In this verse, trying to displace or confound the Truth with falsehood]
7:185 Awalam yanthuroo fee malakooti alssamawati waal-ardi wama khalaqa Allahu min shay-in waan AAasa an yakoona qadi iqtaraba ajaluhum fabi-ayyi hadeethin baAAdahu yu/minoona
7:185 Can they not see (and correlate what he tells them with) the Dominion of the heavens and the earth and what Allah has created? Does it ever occur to them that the end of their own life may be near (hence the time to make the right decisions is not unlimited)? What HADITH besides the Qur’an, are they going to believe after him?
12:111 Laqad kana fee qasasihim AAibratun li-olee al-albabi ma kana hadeethan yuftara walakin tasdeeqa allathee bayna yadayhi watafseela kulli shay-in wahudan warahmatan liqawmin yu/minoona
12:111 Indeed in the history of these men, there is a lesson for people of understanding. As for this Revelation, it could not possibly be a hadith, fabricated. It confirms the Divine Origin of the previous Scriptures, and gives a detailed explanation of everything. And it is a Beacon and Mercy for all those who accept it.
18:6 FalaAAallaka bakhiAAun nafsaka AAala atharihim in lam yu/minoo bihatha alhadeethi asafan
18:6 (O Messenger) Should you (in your compassion) grieve yourself to death if they are not willing to believe in this Message?
23:44 Thumma arsalna rusulana tatra kulla ma jaa ommatan rasooluha kaththaboohu faatbaAAna baAAdahum baAAdan wajaAAalnahum ahadeetha fabuAAdan liqawmin la yu/minoona
23:44 We sent Our messengers in succession. Whenever a Messenger came to a nation, they denied him. Our Law of Requital caused them to follow one another in disaster, and We made them history. And so - away with people who would not believe!
31:6 Wamina alnnasi man yashtaree lahwa alhadeethi liyudilla AAan sabeeli Allahi bighayri AAilmin wayattakhithaha huzuwan ola-ika lahum AAathabun muheenun
31:6 But among people, there are those who invest their time in HADITH which is unfounded, so as to lead those without knowledge away from the Path of Allah, making mockery of it (the Qur'an). For such there is shameful punishment in store. [In order to defend the ‘Imams’ of Hadith, some commentators try to explain away ‘Lahwal Hadith’ as music. This obviously makes no linguistic or contextual sense].
31:7 Wa-itha tutla AAalayhi ayatuna walla mustakbiran kaan lam yasmaAAha kaanna fee othunayhi waqran fabashshirhu biAAathabin aleemin
31:7 WHENEVER OUR VERSES ARE CONVEYED TO SUCH A PURCHASER OF HADITH, HE TURNS AWAY IN ARROGANCE AS IF HE NEVER HEARD THEM - AS IF THERE WERE DEAFNESS IN HIS EARS. SO GIVE HIM THE TIDINGS OF A PAINFUL DOOM.
33:53 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo la tadkhuloo buyoota alnnabiyyi illa an yu/thana lakum ila taAAamin ghayra nathireena inahu walakin itha duAAeetum faodkhuloo fa-itha taAAimtum faintashiroo wala musta/niseena lihadeethin inna thalikum kana yu/thee alnnabiyya fayastahyee minkum waAllahu la yastahyee mina alhaqqi wa-itha saaltumoohunna mataAAan fais-aloohunna min wara-i hijabin thalikum atharu liquloobikum
waquloobihinna wama kana lakum an tu/thoo rasoola Allahi wala an tankihoo azwajahu min baAAdihi abadan inna thalikum kana AAinda Allahi AAatheeman
33:53 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! Do not enter the Prophet's homes unless you are given permission. When invited to dine, arrive not too early waiting for preparation of the meal. When you are invited, come at the appointed time, and when you have finished eating, disperse. Linger not in the quest of HADITH (vain talk). Behold, this might hurt the Prophet, and he would be shy to say so. But Allah is not shy of telling you what is Right. And if you ask something you need from the ladies (the household of the Prophet), ask them from behind the curtain. This is good for your hearts and for their hearts. (Respect of privacy is an essential component of mutual respect). It is not for you to hurt the Messenger, nor that you should ever marry his wives after him. Verily, this would be a great offense in the Sight of Allah. (They are their mothers 33:6).
39:23 Allahu nazzala ahsana alhadeethi kitaban mutashabihan mathaniya taqshaAAirru minhu juloodu allatheena yakhshawna rabbahum thumma taleenu julooduhum waquloobuhum ila thikri Allahi thalika huda Allahi yahdee bihi man yashao waman yudlili Allahu fama lahu min hadin
39:23 Allah has now revealed the best HADITH, a Book fully consistent within itself. It marks out both ways (to success and failure) repeating its Messages in diverse forms. Herewith shiver the skins of those who have some idea of the Glory of their Lord, and then, their skins and their hearts soften at Allah's Reminder. This is the Guidance of Allah, and with it He guides him who seeks guidance. Whereas he who follows a path that Allah has declared to be wrong, goes astray and he cannot find a guide. (4:88, 15:87).
45:6 Tilka ayatu Allahi natlooha AAalayka bialhaqqi fabi-ayyi hadeethin baAAda Allahi waayatihi yu/minoona
45:6 These are the Messages of Allah We convey to you with Truth. Then, in what HADITH, if not in Allah and His Verses, will they believe?
52:34 Falya/too bihadeethin mithlihi in kanoo sadiqeena
52:34 Then let them produce a Hadith like this if they are truthful. (2:23, 10:38, 11:13, 17:88).
56:81 Afabihatha alhadeethi antum mudhinoona
56:81 Now, is it this Hadith that you would hold in low esteem? (To uphold some other hadith).
68:44 Fatharnee waman yukaththibu bihatha alhadeethi sanastadrijuhum min haythu la yaAAlamoona
68:44 So leave his affair unto Me, him who denied this Message[Hadith]. We shall lead them step by step to a reprisal from directions they had never conceived. [39:23]
77:50 Fabi-ayyi hadeethin baAAdahu yu/minoona
77:50 In what Hadith, after this, will they believe?
No mention of Sunnah of a man from the Quran; only SUNNAH OF ALLAH
15:13 La yu/minoona bihi waqad khalat sunnatu al-awwaleena
15:13 They do not accept the Message. Such has been the way of those who went before them.
17:77 Sunnata man qad arsalna qablaka min rusulina wala tajidu lisunnatina tahweelan
17:77 Such has always been Our Law with all of Our messengers, We sent before you. (Nations that drove them out suffered dire consequences) You will never find a change in Our Laws. [6:34, 6:115, 10:64, 17:77, 18:27, 33:38, 33:62, 35:43, 40:85, 48:23]
18:55 Wama manaAAa alnnasa an yu/minoo ith jaahumu alhuda wayastaghfiroo rabbahum illa an ta/tiyahum sunnatu al-awwaleena aw ya/tiyahumu alAAathabu qubulan
18:55 For, what is there to keep people from attaining belief now that Guidance has come to them, and from asking the protecting forgiveness of their Lord? Unless they choose the fate of the ancient people to befall them or that the doom reaches them even faster.
33:38 Ma kana AAala alnnabiyyi min harajin feema farada Allahu lahu sunnata Allahi fee allatheena khalaw min qablu wakana amru Allahi qadaran maqdooran
33:38 There could be no difficulty to any Prophet in what God has assigned unto him as a duty. That was God’s Law for those who passed on before. And the Commandment of God is a determined decree.
[GOD HELPS HIS MESSENGERS AND THEY CONSIDER NONE OF THEIR DUTIES DIFFICULT IN SPITE OF ALL THE STRIFE INVOLVED. SUNNATILLAH = LAWS OF GOD. IN THE WORLD OF COMMAND HE MAKES LAWS AS HE WILLS. THEN HE IMPLEMENTS THESE LAWS IN THE WORLD OF CREATION (THE UNIVERSE). AND THEN HE NEITHER CHANGES THEM, NOR MAKES ANY EXCEPTIONS. 7:54, 17:77, 33:38, 33:62, 35:43, 40:85, 48:23]
33:62 Sunnata Allahi fee allatheena khalaw min qablu walan tajida lisunnati Allahi tabdeelan
33:62 That was the Way of God among those who lived before. And never will you find any change in God’s Way. [The Divine Laws never change, and the Law of Requital never fails to requite]
35:43 Istikbaran fee al-ardi wamakra alssayyi-i wala yaheequ almakru alssayyi-o illa bi-ahlihi fahal yanthuroona illa sunnata al-awwaleena falan tajida lisunnati Allahi tabdeelan walan tajida lisunnati Allahi tahweelan
35:43 Their arrogance in the land and their evil schemes! Yet an evil scheme engulfs its designers. Are they waiting for anything but the way the ancients were dealt with? Yes! No change you will ever find in the Laws of God, and no deviation you will ever find in the Laws of God.
40:85 Falam yaku yanfaAAuhum eemanuhum lamma raaw ba/sana sunnata Allahi allatee qad khalat fee AAibadihi wakhasira hunalika alkafiroona
40:85 But their proclamation of Faith could not help them, once they saw Our Blow. This is the Law of God that has always applied to His servants. And so, there and then, lost were the rejecters of the changeless Divine Laws.
48:23 Sunnata Allahi allatee qad khalat min qablu walan tajida lisunnati Allahi tabdeelan
48:23 This is God’s Law that has been in force since older times. And you will never find any change in God’s Laws. [Sunnatillah = God’s Laws in practice. Kalimatillah = God’s Word = God’s Laws in theory 3:139, 17:77, 33:38, 33:62, 35:43, 40:85, 48:23
Are there any rulings on following our ancestors [those who gave us the forged sayings and practices of the Messenger of Allah]?
43:20 Yet they say, "If it had been the will of the Beneficent, we should not have worshiped them." But of that, they have no knowledge. They only wander in the valley of conjecture. [There is no room for fatalism in Divine Laws. Humans have been endowed with free will. 6:149, 36:47]
43:21 What! Have We given them a Scripture before this to which they are holding fast?
43:22 Nay, but they say, "Indeed, we found our fathers following a certain religion, and we find our way in their footprints."
43:23 Likewise, whenever We sent before you a warner to any township, its wealthy ones said, "Behold! We have found our forefathers following a certain religion, and we will follow in their footsteps."
[Ummah = A community with common beliefs = Those who share a common religion. Mutrifeen = The wealthy = Those given to material possessions = The social and financial elite = Those steeped in luxury = Those who are used to enjoying the fruit of others’ labor = Those who thrive on easy money = Who get wealthy without hard work]
43:24 He said, “What! Even though I bring you better Guidance than that you found your ancestors following?" They replied, "Indeed, we deny that there is any Truth in what you (prophets) are sent
43:25 And so We requited them. Then see the end of the rejecters.
5:59 Say, "O People of the Scripture! Do you not blame us just because we believe in God, and what is revealed to us and what was revealed before? And because most of you are drifting away from the Right Direction?”
5:60 Say, “Shall I point out to you something much worse for retribution with God? Worse is the case of those whom God has rejected, and His requital hits them. And remember those whom God’s Law relegated from the honourable stature of humanity and they started behaving like apes and swine. And they fell into becoming the slaves of Taaghoot (tyrants and the priesthood of any religion). Such are in worse plight, and farther astray than the mockers.” [2:65, 4:51]
5:61 When they come to you O believers, they say, "We believe". In fact they come in disbelief and depart in disbelief. God knows best what they conceal.
5:62 You will see many of them race towards actions that drag down the human potential, create division in the society and they earn wealth through illicit means. Indeed condemnable is what they do.
5:63 Why do not the rabbis and the priests forbid them from their down-grading assertions and illicit earnings? Indeed condemnable is what they manufacture. (A great many religious leaders, rabbis, priests, monks, Mullahs, yogis, and mystics devour the wealth of people deceptively, and hinder them from the Way of God 9:34)
7:165 When they disregarded the Reminders, We saved the ones who admonished them, and punished those who transgressed and drifted away from the Command.
7:166 As they persisted with their rebellious behaviour, Our Law caused their disposition take a downward turn and they developed apish mentality. We told them, “Be the living symbols of humiliation.”
7:167 And remember, your Lord proclaimed that He would raise against them till the Day of Resurrection, people who will persecute them. Your Lord is Swift in retribution, yet any people who mend their ways, will find Him Forgiving, Merciful.
8:47 Do not be like the disbelievers who come out of their homes boastfully and to show off, although they come forth to hinder people from the Path of God. And God encompasses all their doings.
8:48 There was a group of Satanic conspirators, the hypocrites, who praised the disbelievers’ actions, “You cannot be overcome by any people today, and we will be fighting along with you as allies.” But as soon as the two armies came face to face, they turned back on their heels and fled, saying, “We disown you, We see what you do not. We are afraid of God Who has instilled faith in the hearts of the believers. And God is Strict in grasping.”
8:49 The hypocrites, and those who harbor doubts in their hearts, taunted the believers, “Their religion has deluded them." But, whoever puts his trust in God, will find that God is Exalted in Might, Wise.
8:50 Only if you could perceive how the rejecters leave this world, as the angels put them to death. It is as if they were smiting their faces and backs, “Taste the doom of burning.”
8:51 “It is the result of your deeds that you sent forth with your own hands. God is never a tyrant to His servants.”
8:52 (They were made aware of history but) they ended up like Pharaoh's people, and those before them. They rejected God's messages, and God (through His Laws) seized them for trailing behind in humanity. Certainly, God is Strong, Strict in grasping. [Zanb = Tail = Trailing behind = Sticking a slander behind someone’s back]
8:53 God never changes a Blessing that He has bestowed upon a nation until they first change themselves. And, certainly, God it is Who is Hearer, Knower. [13:11]
8:54 Pharaoh’s people and those before them are examples. They denied the messages of their Lord. They trailed behind in humanity and We (Our Law) annihilated them. Pharaoh’s people were drowned. All were Zaalimeen. [They had displaced justice with injustice and used to violate human rights]
8:55 The worst among creatures in God's Sight are those who are bent on denying the Truth. They show ingratitude by not using their God-given faculties and thus fail to believe.
8:56 Those with whom you have made a peace treaty, and then at every opportunity they break their treaty, certainly violate the Divine Laws.
63:1 When the hypocrites come to you (O Prophet), they say, “We bear witness that you are indeed God’s Messenger.” Yes, God knows that you are truly His Messenger, and God bears witness that the hypocrites are in fact liars.
63:2 They make their oaths and proclamation of Faith a cover so that they may bar others from the Path of God. Miserable indeed is what they do.
63:3 This, because they profess (before you) that they have believed whereas afterward (among their folk) they reject the Truth. And so a seal has been set upon their hearts, thus they understand not. [Variation between utterance and action hampers the power of reasoning within human psyche 61:2-5]
63:4 When you see them, their looks may impress you. And if they speak, you are inclined to listen to their speech. But they are like wooden logs propped up. They think that every call is directed against them. These are the real enemies, so beware of them. God condemns them. How are they deluded! [Wooden logs = Empty of inner strength, unable to stand at their own feet]
63:5 And when it is said to them, “Come! God’s Messenger will ask for your forgiveness”, they shake their heads, and you see them pause, and then draw back in false pride. [Istighfar = Protection of forgiveness = Absolving the faults through good deed = Preservation of the ‘self’]
63:6 It is the same for them whether you pray for their forgiveness, or not pray for their forgiveness. God will not forgive them. For, behold, God does not guide people who keep drifting away. [Fisq = Drifting away = Slip out of sense = Move away from reason = = Drift away from discipline = Defy Divine Commands]
(Hypocrites say that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah but do not do what is required of them)
3.Fools and diseased hearts (intellects)
2:6 Remember that those who have chosen denial in advance, it is all the same to them whether you apprise them (of the consequences of their actions) or apprise them not. They will refuse to acknowledge the Truth. [2:89-109, 6:26, 27:14, 35:42-43, 36:70, 41:26, 47:32]
2:7 God (His Law of Cause and Effect) has sealed their hearts and their hearing, and on their sight there is a veil. And theirs will be a tremendous suffering.
[Khatam or Taba’ from God, seal on the hearts, is a natural consequence of one’s deeds. Blind following, adamancy, being unjust due to selfish interests and arrogance render the human perception and reasoning unreceptive to Divine Revelation. Thus, one loses sensitivity and the ability to perceive reality. It is easy to see how damaging this fall from the high stature of humanity can be, a tremendous suffering that is built-in as the logical consequence of such attitude. 4:88, 17:46, 18:57, 40:35, 45:23, 83:14]
2:8 And of mankind there are those who claim, “We believe in God and the Last Day", while they are not believers. [Their actions that speak louder than words, contradict their claim. 4:136, 49:15]
2:9 They wish to deceive God and those who have attained belief. But they deceive none but themselves and do not realize it!
[Since reason is a faculty that has to be exercised and they have forsaken it, they are little aware of what opportunity of personal development they are missing. They live in a state of denial]
2:10 (This negative attitude) is a disease in their hearts, and God (His Law) increases their disease. And for them is painful suffering, for, they lie to themselves.
[Their attitude reinforces itself according to the Law of Cause and Effect. The conflict between one’s word and action amounts to self-deception that has its own dire consequences]
2:11 And, when it is said to them, “Do not cause disruption in the land (by violating the law)”, they assert, “We are but reformers, setting things right!”
2:12 Oh, surely, it is they who are the disrupters. But they fail to use reason.
[They bring forth a common argument that they are acting in good faith and in accordance with their ‘conscience’. But conscience is only the "internalized society", a mental reflection of the values prevalent in a given environment. Therefore, it can never be a substitute for Divine Revelation (Wahi). 3:20, 5:79, 9:67, 24:21]
2:13 And when it is said to them, “Acknowledge the Truth as people have acknowledged”, they retort, "Shall we accept what the foolish accept?" Nay, certainly, it is they who are foolish. But they do not know. [Imaan = Belief = Conviction = Acceptance = Acknowledgement = Embracing the Truth]
2:14 And when they meet those who have chosen to believe, they say, “We have attained belief.” But when they go apart to their shayaateen (devilish comrades), they say, "Indeed, we are with you. We were only mocking.”
2:15 God will return their mockery to them, and leave them to wander in their arrogance, blindly stumbling to and fro.
2:16 They have bought straying at the expense of Guidance. But their trade has to go bankrupt because they have not set their caravan in the right direction. [Muhtadi = Guided = He who journeys in the right direction]
2:17 Their example is that of a person who lights up a fire without adequate fuel. As soon as brightness surrounds them, the fuel is consumed and God (His Law) takes away their light leaving them in the dark where they cannot see. [The pursuit of instant gains only grants them a fleeting satisfaction since they have forfeited the long-term goal]
2:18 Deaf, dumb and blind of reason! They will not return to journey in the right direction (unless they use their perceptual and conceptual faculties. 8:22, 16:76, 17:36).
6:148 Those who associate others with God will say, “Had God willed, we would not have practiced idolatry, nor would our ancestors, nor would we have prohibited anything.” So did their ancestors argue falsely until they tasted Our Requital. Say, “Do you have any proven knowledge that you can present (that the human being is created without free will 18:29, 76:3, 90:10)? Nay, you follow nothing but conjecture and you only run after guess-work.”
6:149 Say, "The most Powerful Reasoning, the Final Evidence belongs to God. If He willed, He could have made all of you innately guided (like other creation who spontaneously follow Divine Laws 16:49, 41:11.)”
6:150 Say, “Come, bring forward your witnesses who can bear witness that God forbade all this. And if they bear witness falsely, do not bear witness with them. You shall not follow the opinions of those who deny Our revelations, nor of those who do not believe in the life to come, and deem others equal with their Lord. [8:53,
(Associating anyone or anything with Allah is condemned; this includes the so-called prophetic traditions)
5.Deaf dumb and blind
2:170 When it is said unto these (satans), "Follow what God has revealed", they say, "Nay! We follow that wherein we found our ancestors.” "What! Even though their ancestors (and the ancient Imams) were lacking in understanding and were not rightly guided?”
[5:104, 10:78, 11:62, 11:87, 21:53, 34:43, 38:7, 43:23. Hudan and derivatives = Prominent = Bright = Lighted = Clearly visible = Leading = Guidance = Lighthouse = A well-lit road = A landmark of identification in the desert or sea]
2:171 The likeness of such blind followers is that (of a herd of sheep) which hear the shepherd’s call, but hear in it nothing more than a sound and a shout. Deaf, dumb, blind, for they use not their reason and, hence, fail to attain good common sense.
[This is subhuman level of existence 7:179. ‘Unq = Shepherd’s call. Shepherd here pertains to religious leaders who have learned some meaningless words or tenets, and a herd of sheep is the masses that blindly follow them. Kufr embraces blind following in addition to denying or concealing the truth. Perceptual senses alone cannot distinguish human beings from the rest of the Animal Kingdom. It is the data processing or intellectual analysis that makes them distinct]
12:40 "Those whom you worship and obey besides Him, are but names that you have fabricated, you and your forefathers. God has revealed no Authority for them. All ruling belongs to God alone. And there is no Judge but He. He has commanded that you serve none but Him. That is the Right Religion. But most people are not aware of this fact or disregard it in practice."
NO IMAMS, NO SHAIKHS, NO MULLAHS, NO MUFTIS, NO HUMAN BEING
7.Dogs and Cattle (cows and sheep that follow the shepherds without thinking)
Surah 7 verses 174-179
7:174 We explain Our verses in detail so that people turn toward the Book.
7:175 And tell them what happened to him whom Our messages were conveyed but he cast them off. Thus Satan (his selfish desire) overpowered him until he became of those who lose their way.
7:176 He could have raised himself in honour according to Our Laws, but he clung to the earth and followed his own desire. Therefore his likeness is as the likeness of a dog. Whether you pet him or scold him, he pants. Such is the example of nations that deny Our revelations. So, relate this narration that they may reflect. [If it had been Our Will = If so applied Our Laws. God’s Revelation lightens your burdens, while manmade dogmas burden you. 7:157]
7:177 Indeed, pitiable is the example of those who reject Our verses, since they hurt their own ‘selves’.
7:178 Whoever attains God’s Guidance according to His Laws is led right. And goes astray he who violates God’s Law of Guidance. [4:88]
7:179 Our Law has committed to Hell numerous people, rural and urban; they are living a life of Hell. They have hearts that they use not to understand. They have eyes with which they see not, and ears with which they hear not. They are like cattle. Nay, they are even worse. Such are the people who have chosen to live through life in total darkness of ignorance.
8. Braying of an ass
31:17 “O My dear son! Strive to establish the Divine System wherever you are, and advocate the doing of what is right and forbid the doing of what is contrary to the Permanent Values. And remain steadfast in the face of whatever may befall you by way of opposition and persecution. All this, behold, will require unwavering determination.”
31:18 “And never be arrogant with people, and walk not haughtily on the earth. Indeed, God does not love any bragging boaster. [17:37, 57:23]
31:19 “Walk humbly and subdue your voice. For, the harshest of voices is the voice of the donkey(braying of an ass)."