2:34 And when We said to the angels, “Humble yourselves and be subservient to Adam-mankind, they instantly complied humbling themselves except Iblees (Satan). He refused through self-glorification, and so became a rejecter of the Divine Command.
There seems to be an understanding that the ‘angels’ bowed down to adam and committed shirk, the only unforgiveable ‘sin’ in the sight of Allah, which was asked of them by Allah Himself; a contradiction if ever I saw one. Understanding of the adam verses literally leads us into this, whereas we should be: “Those who are well founded in knowledge understand why the allegories have been used and they keep learning from them.” [3:7].
The angels can be reasonably understood to be the universal forces which Allah had created at the beginning of the universe and so were ‘acting’ according to His Will, they were doing salat. Now we have man who could communicate and acquire knowledge:-
2:31 And God endowed humanity with the capacity to attain knowledge. Then He showed the angels certain things and said to them, “Tell me if you have the capacity of learning about these, if you are indeed truthful (and better qualified to have supremacy on the planet earth).” [‘Allam-al-Aadam-al-Asma = He endowed humankind with the capacity to attain knowledge]
The ‘angels’ bowed down AFTER man obtained knowledge [the ‘naming’ of things]. This means the universal forces can now be discovered, understood and utilised for the benefit of mankind; they can be put into ‘service/servitude’ by man [electricity, etc.]. Also, from elsewhere in the Quran, ‘angels’ are a metaphor for the state of mind of man who have reached a mental state of complete understanding of their place in the scheme of things; they have no fear, they have no doubts, they put into practice the teachings of the Quran, not because they believe they will be rewarded in the hereafter [they know they will be rewarded] but they do it because it is the right thing to do.
Now satan is that mindset that opposes this advanced human personality, which deprives man of the benefits of their hard work which is not directed at advancing humankind, evolving to higher goals [hellfire is a metaphor for the destructive effects of wrong actions, you do not achieve any positive result by wrong acts, just like pouring boiling water on growing shoots will kill them, you think you are watering them, but the wrong act produces no fruit]. The biggest satanic force is false pride; thinking you know it all, regardless of the consequences.
When the kafirs rejected the Quran they were asked to “produce a surah like this”, which can mean that if they rejected the wisdom, moral teachings, ethical behaviours, etc that the Quran was advocating, then tell us something else that would benefit man better than this. If they could not, and they surely did not and continue not to do so, then why are they not following a Book that is going to benefit them!
Will satan be forgiven by Allah because he did not associate partners with Allah? If man believes in one God but does not do what He has instructed us to do, then common sense tells us that he will create his own hell, so how can this be forgiveness?