I am working on a detailed response to the sects that do this stoning barbarity and need help to get definitive article that cannot be refuted. Those who are able to help can post any comments on where my arguments need strenghtening or toning down. Thank you:-
Punishment for Adultery and Fornication - Zina
The Quran is quite clear that adultery is wrong for mankind and we can look at a definition of Zina based on the dictionary of the Quran by G.A. Parwez:-
Zain, nuun, yeh
Zana: yazni: ziniyan wa zina: he fornicated, had sexual intercourse without a proper wedding; the Qur’an says wala taqrabuz zina:
17:32 Do not come close to adultery, for, it is an abomination and an evil way.
Do not even go near zina, that is, not only abstain from zina itself but do not also go near anything that has to do anything with zina.
Surah Furqaan says: wala yaznuun:
25:68 And those who call on no deities along with God. Nor take a life that God has forbidden except in the course of justice (through a court of Law).
Nor do they commit adultery; and whoever does this, drags down one’s own humanity
Az zaani is the man who commits zina and az zaaniyah is a woman who commits zina.
We have to live by certain principles and values, not to do so would eventually lead to chaos and anarchy. Societies have destroyed themselves when they have degenerated into their primordial, animal behaviours. Adultery is one of those things which cannot at first be defined as to its “criminality”. If two people want to have physical relations then what does it matter? But when couples are freely available for each other, the very bases of a stable society, the family unit, is destroyed. Whenever this happens everything else goes out of the window. Hence, the need for some sort of punitive punishment to help prevent adultery and make it an act that should not be undertaken by righteous, good, people.
Setting a moral boundary is not easy; one man’s morality is another’s immorality. Therefore, when Allah has set the punishment for the immoral act of adultery and fornication (any sexual act between two people who are not married to each other) then we have to understand the wisdom behind it and not allow our feelings about the so-called “barbarity” of the punishment to move us away from implementing it. What punishment should we have then? None? Imprisonment? Do we decide for ourselves what a crime is and what is not? Do we pick and choose the punishment according to who is in control (President Hue Hefner Clinton!) or do we stick to one set of permanent values so that no-one can usurp our Allah give human rights?
Ask any wife how she feels when her husband has been caught with his pants down and you can understand that this is not a trifling matter. The punishment is only applied when the act is undertaken; no adultery then no punishment, so the deterrent nature of this is just as important.
Now the Quran:-
Surah 24 verses 2-11
24:2 The adulteress and the adulterer, flog each one of them with a hundred stripes. And let not compassion sway you in their case from carrying out God’s Law, if you believe in God and the Last Day. And let a group of believers witness the penalty. [Jaldah (from skin) implies that the lashes must be light to impact the body no more than the skin. And the presence of a group of believers clearly indicates the punishment as a means of deterrence and not torture. Lewdness: 4:15, 25. Punishment as a deterrent: 5:38. Capital punishment for rape: 33:60:61]
24:3 The adulterer couples with none but an adulteress who worships her desire. And with the adulteress none couples but the adulterer who worships his desire. And it is forbidden to the believers. [24:26, 45:23]
[Fornication and adultery are a form of idol worship for, such people submit to their desires. The word AW here is explanatory. AW = Or + That is + Namely + Call it + In other words. AW appears in this format instead of 'or' in many places in the Qur’an such as 23:6, 24:3, 25:62. Nikah, in the lexicon, applies to genuine wedlock as well as to sexual relations between a man and a woman outside wedlock, depending on the context. The very common rendering of this verse to the effect that an adulterer is allowed to marry only an adulteress or idolatress, and vice versa, is absolutely erroneous and contrary to the Big Picture of the Qur’an which lays great emphasis on reform and forgiveness. And it defies all sense. Whereas many translators have maintained that such men and women will end up marrying their like. This is obviously the result of not bearing in mind the meaning of AW and Nikah, and going against common sense. Finally, the Book of God does not downgrade people once they have repented or received penalty. Oh, yet another point! After painting an X-rated scenario of Madinah as if adultery/fornication was going on right and left and coming to public knowledge, in the very life-time of the exalted Prophet, the Imams of the old come up with a horrible joke. They insult Hazrat Ali that he decreed for an adulterer to receive a hundred stripes to fulfil the Command in the Qur’an, and then stoned him to death to fulfil the Command of Hadith! The so-called Imams also contend that while an unmarried person will receive lashes, a married person must be condemned to death by stoning! Did they not prefer their own whims to the word of God?]
24:4 (Protecting the honour of a woman is extremely important.) Those who accuse chaste women and then fail to produce four witnesses (the court of law shall order) eighty lashes to such accusers (24:23). And, never in the future accept their testimony. They indeed have drifted away from morality. [Faasiq = One who drifts away–from what? Will depend on the context]
24:5 Except those who afterward repent and reform. For, certainly God is Forgiving, Merciful.
24:6 As for those who accuse their wives, but have no witnesses except themselves, then let the accuser call God four times to Witness that he is indeed telling the Truth.
24:7 And the fifth time, that God may reject him if he is telling a lie.
24:8 But punishment shall be averted from her if she calls God four times as Witness that he is indeed telling a lie.
24:9 And the fifth time, that God may reject her if he is telling the Truth. [The court shall then punish neither the husband nor the wife and it infers that the same procedure applies if the wife accuses her husband]
24:10 Were it not for God’s favor upon you and His grace (your social fabric would have been undone). God is Clement, Wise.
24:11 Surely, there are numerous among you who would slander others. Deem not that this (Law of eighty lashes and calling God to Witness) is harsh for you. Nay, it is good for you since every slanderer will have to account for what he earns through this dragging violation of human dignity. In the Divine System an awesome punishment awaits anyone who magnifies the slander (trying to make it believable).
Punishment is also dependent upon your background. Those who had been abused by their masters and used for sexual purposes who then commit adultery are only given fifty lashes, while those who were in positions of honour and dignity would get double the punishment;-
Surah 4 verses 25-28
4:25 (As the Qur’an is being revealed to you O Messenger, the emancipation of the slaves, male and female, is steadily taking place.) A man among you who cannot find a free believing woman willing to marry him, should have no hesitation in asking the hand of a believing maiden from her guardian. God knows your beliefs and reiterates that all human beings are equal in the Sight of God (17:70). Pay them a generous marital gift in kindness. They shall maintain moral behavior, by not committing adultery, or having secret relations. Since their upbringing has been deficient in the environment of slavery, their punishment will be half that of the free women, if they commit indecency after marriage. The permission to marry a bonded woman is for him who fears he might commit sin. The better recourse is freeing her first from bondage. Men and women must be patient and exercise self-control while waiting to get married. God is Forgiving, Merciful.
4:26 God will explain to you and guide you by the examples of those who were before you, and turn to you (in Mercy). And God is Knower, Wise.
4:27 God turns to you in kindness, while those who follow their desires want that you drift far away from the right path. [They would rather have no laws to constrain their desires]
4:28 God wishes to lighten your burden with His Guidance. The human being is created weak, having the tendency to fall victim to his own selfish desire [7:17, 25:28-29]
33:30 O Wives of the Prophet! (You will be seen as role models for other women, therefore), if any of you displays unseemly conduct, double would be her suffering, for indeed, that is easy for God.
The normal punishment is clear, one hundred lashes (please note that a lash is not the same as a whip, the skin is not broken or cut with a lash) so where do our beloved scholars get the stoning to death nonsense from? The Jews used to stone adulterers to death so maybe this is one source of the interpolated foreign idea. Muslims do not read a clear verse from the word of Allah that cannot be overlooked unless you are in fact not a Muslim. A “kafir” is someone who denies the truth so this means most of the Muslims are kafirs.
I will now quote from the unauthentic hadith of Bukhari (forged hadith usually called ‘weak’ by our scholars!) to justify the stoning punishment by so-called Muslims who do not use the Quran as the “Criterion” to judge right and wrong. They do not reject anything that contradicts the Quran, that is false, a lie and an abomination against Allah, the Quran and the last Messenger; they lap up anything that someone has said comes from the Messenger and frighten the sheep into submission to the will of Bukhari. Criticising the hadith is criticising the Messenger, and we all know what punishment that entails.
Volume 3, Book 49, Number 860: Narrated Abu Huraira and Zaid bin Khalid Al-Juhani:
A bedouin came and said, "O Allah's Apostle! Judge between us according to Allah's Laws." His opponent got up and said, "He is right. Judge between us according to Allah's Laws." The bedouin said, "My son was a laborer working for this man, and he committed illegal sexual intercourse with his wife. The people told me that my son should be stoned to death; so, in lieu of that, I paid a ransom of one hundred sheep and a slave girl to save my son. Then I asked the learned scholars who said, "Your son has to be lashed one-hundred lashes and has to be exiled for one year." The Prophet said, "No doubt I will judge between you according to Allah's Laws. The slave-girl and the sheep are to go back to you, and your son will get a hundred lashes and one year exile." He then addressed somebody, "O Unais! go to the wife of this (man) and stone her to death" So, Unais went and stoned her to death.
The following hadith comes straight after the above libellous account, puts this to shame and is exactly what I am trying to advocate for us Muslims. Bukhari must have had a laugh when he placed these two together
Volume 3, Book 49, Number 861: Narrated Aisha: Allah's Apostle said, "If somebody innovates something which is not in harmony with the principles of our religion, that thing is rejected."
If the religion cannot start from the base of all the teachings, the Quran, then what hope have we got to make sense of this life?
Volume 4, Book 56, Number 829: Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Omar: The Jews came to Allah's Apostle and told him that a man and a woman from amongst them had committed illegal sexual intercourse. Allah's Apostle said to them, "What do you find in the Torah (old Testament) about the legal punishment of Ar-Rajm (stoning)?" They replied, (But) we announce their crime and lash them." Abdullah bin Salam said, "You are telling a lie; Torah contains the order of Rajm." They brought and opened the Torah and one of them solaced his hand on the Verse of Rajm and read the verses preceding and following it. Abdullah bin Salam said to him, "Lift your hand." When he lifted his hand, the Verse of Rajm was written there. They said, "Muhammad has told the truth; the Torah has the Verse of Rajm. The Prophet then gave the order that both of them should be stoned to death. ('Abdullah bin 'Omar said, "I saw the man leaning over the woman to shelter her from the stones."
This hadith has the Prophet opening the Torah, the corrupted version and not the one given to Moses, and showing a Jew where the stoning to death law was written. The Jew originally said that they should be lashed but was shown to be a liar and the couple were stoned to death by our Prophet. If the Prophet could see where the stoning to death verse was in the Torah, how was it that he could not read the punishment for adulterers written in the Quran? Had the Quran not been revealed to him? Are we Muslims so backward that we can accept without thinking hadith that turn our Prophet, a Rightly Guided Messenger of Allah, into a barbarian?
And what has the “inspired word of God” (according to the Christians), the Bible got to say:
22:22 If a man be found lying with a woman married to an husband, then they shall both of them die, both the man that lay with the woman, and the woman: so shalt thou put away evil from Israel.
22:23 If a damsel that is a virgin be betrothed unto an husband, and a man find her in the city, and lie with her;
22:24 Then ye shall bring them both out unto the gate of that city, and ye shall stone them with stones that they die; the damsel, because she cried not, being in the city; and the man, because he hath humbled his neighbor's wife: so thou shalt put away evil from among you.
22:25 But if a man find a betrothed damsel in the field, and the man force her, and lie with her: then the man only that lay with her shall die.
Allah says clearly in the Quran what the punishment for adultery is but we copied this stoning barbarism and became a tribal paganised religion, just like the Jews.
If you want to add insult to injury then what abut the following hadith, which part of true belief and righteousness do they belong to:-
Volume 2, Book 23, Number 329:
Narrated Abu Dhar:
Allah's Apostle said, "Someone came to me from my Lord and gave me the news (or good tidings) that if any of my followers dies worshipping none (in any way) along with Allah, he will enter Paradise." I asked, "Even if he committed illegal sexual intercourse (adultery) and theft?" He replied, "Even if he committed illegal sexual intercourse (adultery) and theft."
Volume 5, Book 58, Number 188:
Narrated 'Amr bin Maimun:
During the pre-lslamic period of ignorance I saw a she-monkey surrounded by a number of monkeys. They were all stoning it, because it had committed illegal sexual intercourse. I too, stoned it along with them.
Who questioned the monkeys and have you ever seen a monkey wedding?
“I’m the king of the jungle, I want to talk like you, walk like you” and now fornicate like you, you, you!
Volume 8, Book 82, Number 806:
Narrated Abu Huraira:
A man came to Allah's Apostle while he was in the mosque, and he called him, saying, "O Allah's Apostle! I have committed illegal sexual intercourse.'" The Prophet turned his face to the other side, but that man repeated his statement four times, and after he bore witness against himself four times, the Prophet called him, saying, "Are you mad?" The man said, "No." The Prophet said, "Are you married?" The man said, "Yes." Then the Prophet said, 'Take him away and stone him to death." Jabir bin 'Abdullah said: I was among the ones who participated in stoning him and we stoned him at the Musalla. When the stones troubled him, he fled, but we over took him at Al-Harra and stoned him to death.
Volume 8, Book 82, Number 816:
Narrated Ibn 'Abbas:
'Umar said, "I am afraid that after a long time has passed, people may say, "We do not find the Verses of the Rajam (stoning to death) in the Holy Book," and consequently they may go astray by leaving an obligation that Allah has revealed. Lo! I confirm that the penalty of Rajam be inflicted on him who commits illegal sexual intercourse, if he is already married and the crime is proved by witnesses or pregnancy or confession." Sufyan added, "I have memorized this narration in this way." 'Umar added, "Surely Allah's Apostle carried out the penalty of Rajam, and so did we after him."
(edited version) Volume 8, Book 82, Number 817: Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: In the meantime, 'Umar sat on the pulpit and when the callmakers for the prayer had finished their call, 'Umar stood up, and having glorified and praised Allah as He deserved, he said, "Now then, I am going to tell you something which (Allah) has written for me to say. I do not know; perhaps it portends my death, so whoever understands and remembers it, must narrate it to the others wherever his mount takes him, but if somebody is afraid that he does not understand it, then it is unlawful for him to tell lies about me. Allah sent Muhammad with the Truth and revealed the Holy Book to him, and among what Allah revealed, was the Verse of the Rajam (the stoning of married person (male & female) who commits illegal sexual intercourse, and we did recite this Verse and understood and memorized it. Allah's Apostle did carry out the punishment of stoning and so did we after him.
I am afraid that after a long time has passed, somebody will say, 'By Allah, we do not find the Verse of the Rajam in Allah's Book,' and thus they will go astray by leaving an obligation which Allah has revealed. And the punishment of the Rajam is to be inflicted to any married person (male & female), who commits illegal sexual intercourse, if the required evidence is available or there is conception or confession. And then we used to recite among the Verses in Allah's Book: 'O people! Do not claim to be the offspring of other than your fathers, as it is disbelief (unthankfulness) on your part that you claim to be the offspring of other than your real father
Volume 8, Book 82, Number 824:
I asked 'Abdullah bin Abi 'Aufa about the Rajam (stoning somebody to death for committing illegal sexual intercourse). He replied, "The Prophet carried out the penalty of Rajam," I asked, "Was that before or after the revelation of Surat-an-Nur?" He replied, "I do not know."
Volume 3, Book 38, Number 508: Narrated Zaid bin Khalid and Abu Huraira:
The Prophet said, "O Unais! Go to the wife of this (man) and if she confesses (that she has committed illegal sexual intercourse), then stone her to death."
There is that story of a goat eating the verses of rajm, stoning, that were intended for the Quran, while it was being “protected” under the pillow of Omar. He was at a loss as to what to do as people may have said that he interpolated something into the Quran if he had tried to do so without this digested parchment as “proof”. I am not going to quote it hear, I cannot be bothered, but this Billy goat gruff hadith from Sunan Ibne majah, vol 2, and Musnad Imam Ahmad, vol 6 is not mentioned by Bukhari so cannot be “Sahih” (truthful) like the ones quoted above!!!. If you want to believe in it then it shows that although Allah says he will protect the Quran, a goat is more powerful than the All-Mighty Creator and Sustainer of the universe!
Stoning in the Quran
There are incidents recorded in the Quran where people were threatened with stoning but none of the perpetrators were Muslims, they were pagans! This is further proof that the Muslim practices that are said to be Islam have more to do with idolatry than the pure Quranic way of life ordained for us by Allah.
Surah 11 verses 88-95 (concerning the Prophet Shuaib)
11:88 He said, "O My people, think again! What if I am acting on a clear evidence from my Lord, and He has provided me with a decent sustenance? I deal in all fairness and I shall never preach what I do not practice behind your sight. I only desire your betterment as much as I can. All my resources, abilities, and success depend on God alone. In Him I trust and to Him I turn with hope.”
11:89 "O My people! Let not my disagreement with you be taken personally to cause you to persist in your guilt so that the same (retribution) befall you that befell the people of Noah, and the people of Hud, and the people of Saaleh. And remember that the people of Lot did not live very far from you.”
11:90 (None of the nations was destroyed for a deficiency in their worship. They met destruction for violating human rights.) “Seek forgiveness of your Lord, then repent by journeying on the right path. You will experience that my Lord is Merciful, Loving." [14:8]
11:91 They said, "O Shoaib! Much of what you tell us is beyond our comprehension. We see that you are not a man of power in our midst. If we were not concerned about your family and your tribe, we would have stoned you. You are of no value to us."
11:92 He said, "O My people! Does my family and tribe command a greater respect than God? And you put Him behind you, neglected. Remember, my Lord surrounds all you do."
11:93 "O My people! Go on doing what you wish, and so will I. Soon you will find out which of us will incur the chastisement of humiliation, and who is a liar. Just watch, and I am watching along with you.”
11:94 When Our Command came to pass, We saved Shoaib, and those who believed with him, by a Mercy from Us. An awful blast seized the wrongdoers. The morning found them dead in their very homes, on the ground. [Shoaib and his companions had moved to safety as forewarned]
11:95 As if they had never lived there. Oh, away with Midyan, just as the Thamud have been done away with!
Surah 18 verses 19-20 (concerning the people of the cave)
18:19 And so, when We caused them to rise (out of the Cave), they began to ask one another (about the next step). One of them asked, “How long have you been here?” “We have been here a day or part of a day!” they answered. Finally they said, “Your Lord knows best how long. (They were so committed to their mission that they hardly noticed how the days and nights went by.) Let one of you go with these silver coins to the town, and look for the best available food, and bring you some provisions. But let him exercise caution, and by no means make anyone aware of you.”
18:20 “For, behold, if they discover you, they will stone you to death or force you to revert to their religion, then you will never succeed.”
Surah 19 verses 41-48 (concerning Abraham)
19:41 Also mention in the Book (the story of) Abraham. Indeed, he was a man of Truth, a Prophet.
19:42 He even confronted his father (Azar), “O My father! Why worship what hear not and see not and can be of no avail to you?” [Azar (Terah) was the chief priest of King Nimrod Shaddad of Babylon and Ninevah, and he was a master sculptor]
19:43 "O My father! Indeed, There has indeed come to me of knowledge that came not to you. Follow me then, and I will lead you onto a perfect way.”
19:44 “O My father! Do not serve the Satan, for Satan (the selfish desire) is a rebel against the Beneficent.”
19:45 “O My father! I am afraid that a retribution from the Beneficent might overtake you, and you be counted among the friends of Satan.”
19:46 He answered, "Do you dislike my gods, O Abraham? If you cease not, I will certainly cause you to be stoned to death! Now get away from me for good!” [The Chief Priest, Azar, had the power to declare someone apostate and condemn him to be stoned. For the Divine Ordinance of No Compulsion in Religion, see 2:256]
19:47 Abraham said, "Peace be upon you! I will pray to my Lord for your forgiveness. For, He is ever Kind to me.” [9:114]
19:48 “I am withdrawing from you all and from whatever you invoke besides God. I will call on my Lord. By imploring my Lord alone, I cannot go wrong." [60:4]
Surah 26 verses 105-121 (concerning Noah)
26:105 The people of Noah too denied the messengers.
26:106 When their brother Noah said to them, "Will you not be careful?
26:107 Indeed, I am a Messenger to you, worthy of your trust.
26:108 Be mindful of God and pay heed to me.
26:109 And no reward, whatsoever, do I ask for it. My reward rests with none but the Lord of the Worlds.
26:110 So be mindful of God and pay heed to me.”
26:111 They answered, "Shall we put our faith in you even though the low class people are following you?"
26:112 He said, “I do not care what their professions are and what they have been doing before.
26:113 Their accountability is up to my Lord. If only you understood (that the most honoured in the Sight of God is the one who is best in conduct 49:13).
26:114 Hence, I shall not drive away the believers.
26:115 I am only a plain warner.”
26:116 They said, "O Noah! If you do not refrain, you will surely be stoned to death."
26:117 Thereupon he prayed, "My Lord! Indeed, my people are accusing me of lying.
26:118 Hence, judge between me and them openly, and save me and my company of believers.”
26:119 And We saved him and those who accompanied him in the laden Ark.
26:120 Then afterward We drowned the others.
26:121 In this, behold, there is a sign, even though most of them are not believers (in the Law of Just Recompense).
Surah 36 verse 13-32 (concerning three Prophets of Allah; Sodom?)
36:13 Make them understand in Symbolic Form: The People of the Town when messengers came to them.
36:14 When We sent to them two messengers, they denied them. We then strengthened them with a third and they said, "Surely, We have been sent unto you."
36:15 But the people said, "You are nothing but human beings like us. The Beneficent has never revealed anything. You are but lying.” [6:91, 34:31]
36:16 Said the messengers, "Our Lord knows that we have been indeed sent to you.
36:17 And our duty is only to convey the Message clearly."
36:18 The people said, "We consider you bad omens. Indeed, if you desist not, we will surely stone you, and grievous punishment will befall you at our hands."
36:19 The messengers replied, "Your destiny rests with yourselves, now that you have been reminded. (There is no such thing as a bad omen 17:13.) Nay, but you are a people who are wasting away your potentials.” (10:12)
[The Symbolism used here is most aptly applicable to Moses, Jesus and Muhammad (salutations to them all). All three were commissioned in a similar cultural environment, hence, the Town. All three upheld strict Monotheism, were denied, threatened and persecuted or migrated. And the first two were strengthened by the Final Messenger of God to carry the Divine Message to people of all times and places]
36:20 At that, a man came running from the farthest end of the Town and said, "O My people! Follow these messengers. [This man from the farthest end represents the believers who journeyed a long way from the Falsehood to the Truth]
36:21 Follow those who ask you no reward, and who are rightly guided."
36:22 He continued, “Why should I not serve Him Who has originated me, and unto Whom you all will be returned.
36:23 Should I take gods instead of Him? But, then, if the Beneficent intends to harm me, their intercession cannot help me at all, nor can they save me.
36:24 Then, behold, I would be lost in error manifest.
36:25 Surely, I have come to believe in your Lord. Listen, then, to me!”
36:26 And this man was told, “You shall enter Paradise.” He exclaimed, “I wish my people only knew.
36:27 That my Lord has absolved my imperfections, and has made me among the honored ones.”
36:28 Then, We did not send down any army from the sky against his people (of the Town), nor do We ever send.
36:29 Nothing but a single Blast (of Requital), and behold! They were ashes, still and silent.
36:30 Ah, the anguish for the servants, they have to bear! Never has a Messenger come to them, but they did mock him!
36:31 Have they not reflected how many a generation We (Our Law of Requital) annihilated before them. They did not turn to their messengers and, hence, never returned to their lost glory.
36:32 All of them, all together, will be presented before Us.
I have left the verses of stoning in the context they were written. Many nations rejected the Word of Allah and wanted to stone the very Prophets He sent to them. They rejected Allah and so do the propagators of falsehood, namely Sharia, who left us with obscene act after obscene act that the indoctrinated adhere to in direct opposition to the clear teachings of the Quran. Where is the “Quran and Sunnah” when Sunnah is followed and not the former?
Surah 7 verses 174-179
7:174 We explain Our verses in detail so that people turn toward the Book.
7:175 And tell them what happened to him whom Our messages were conveyed but he cast them off. Thus Satan (his selfish desire) overpowered him until he became of those who lose their way.
7:176 He could have raised himself in honour according to Our Laws, but he clung to the earth and followed his own desire. Therefore his likeness is as the likeness of a dog. Whether you pet him or scold him, he pants. Such is the example of nations that deny Our revelations. So, relate this narration that they may reflect. [If it had been Our Will = If so applied Our Laws. God’s Revelation lightens your burdens, while manmade dogmas burden you. 7:157]
7:177 Indeed, pitiable is the example of those who reject Our verses, since they hurt their own ‘selves’.
7:178 Whoever attains God’s Guidance according to His Laws is led right. And goes astray he who violates God’s Law of Guidance. [4:88]
7:179 Our Law has committed to Hell numerous people, rural and urban; they are living a life of Hell. They have hearts that they use not to understand. They have eyes with which they see not, and ears with which they hear not. They are like cattle. Nay, they are even worse. Such are the people who have chosen to live through life in total darkness of ignorance.