THUS SPEAKS THE QURAN
Shabbir Ahmed, M.D.
WHAT IS THE QURAN?
According to Muslim belief, the Quran is a book revealed by the Almighty to the exalted Prophet Muhammad of Arabia between 610-622 CE. It is a guide of conduct for all humanity. Unbiased reflection tells any reader that the Book is indeed matchless in the wisdom, knowledge and guidance it enshrines.
Prophet Muhammad (570-632 CE) was the last in the long chain of prophets, messengers and apostles of God who were raised to guide people in all parts of the world. He was the last prophet since the Message delivered to him is complete, unaltered, and God Himself guarantees its protection for all times.
WHAT IS TSQ?
Although the entire Quran is full of wisdom, knowledge and guidance for mankind, “Thus Speaks the Quran” (TSQ) briefly presents the fundamentals of the Divine Message. TSQ is intended to be simple and reader-friendly for all, especially for those on the go.
For simplicity and brevity, I have paraphrased the central themes of the Quranic verses. Particular care has been taken to preserve the original meanings. This work is NOT a literal translation.
Undue bias in the West keeps people from enriching their lives with the Supreme Quranic wisdom. The objective of TSQ is not trying to defend the Quran which, I believe, needs no defense. For details, the reader may check one of my books, “Islam As I Understand” or “Who Wrote The Quran?” They are available online at www.ourbeacon.com.
It is our sincere and fervent desire that no human being should remain deprived of the unique Beacon of Light, Al-Quran. We see quotes from every Tom, Dick & Harry in print and electronic media, but, according to Murad Hoffman, "Mentioning the Quran in the West is like quoting Satan." I wish to effectively change this unfortunate perception since the Quran is an unparalleled guidance for all humanity. Muslims have no exclusive rights to it. Rather, it is they who have abandoned it in favor of books written by “Imams” and Mullahs. However, since Muslims are thought to be the custodians of the Quran, their deplorable actions naturally alienate non-Muslims from this Treasure of treasures. We cannot blame the westerners for preemptively rejecting the Benevolent Quran since they have been made to think of it as a demonic book. Here is an opportunity for anyone and everyone to conveniently check the reality first hand.
Note: Surah means Chapter and Ayah means verse. References may be given within brackets. For example, 2:31 written as [2:31] will mean Chapter 2, verse 31. Muhammad (S), (S) indicates ‘our salutes to him’.
The What & Why Of The Universe: It is often said that great minds think alike. Quite a few brilliant minds in the West, at the height of their intellectual inquiry, seem to come close to the glorious concepts, principles, and ideals of Divine intelligence given in the Quran.
“I think, therefore I am.” – Rene Descartes (1590 to 1650, French philosopher)
Descartes’ ability to think proved to him and others that his existence was real. Most simply, this demolishes the false dogmas of "Wahdat al-Wujud" (Unity of being), Mysticism, Sufism and Pantheism all of which deny the real existence of everything but God.
Plato thought of the Universe as ‘a reflection of ideas', “The real existence is only of the World of Ideas. All that we see around us is an image of that World.”
Great Hindu philosophers thought of the Universe as “God’s dream”. “Lord Brahma is dreaming in a deep slumber. The dream is this Universe and the day He wakes up, it would be the end of the show.” Some thought of God as “Nut-Rajan”, the Great Player: “The Universe is a toy and Lord Rama, Ramji is playing with it.”
The Quran states that the entire Universe, including man, has a real existence and it has been created for a definite purpose, not in mere play. And it runs according to permanent, immutable Divine laws. So, water flows down-stream, gravity pulls, fire is hot, ice is cold, things float on water or sink in accordance with their specific gravity, planets revolve in their assigned orbits, living beings face death, night and day alternate, opposite poles attract, like poles repel, actions have reactions, metals are good conductors of heat and electricity while non-metals are not, magnet will pull iron and leave aside wood, elements will always have a fixed density, all things are made of atoms, heat expands, cold contracts, and so on.
When we discover any of such laws, we call it science. If the physical laws in Nature kept changing, no science would have been possible.
God creates His laws in the World of Command as He wills. Then He implements these laws in the World of Creation (Universe or Nature). Although the all Powerful God can change these laws, He never does. Therefore, nothing ‘supra-natural’, ‘supra-rational’ or ‘supernatural’ happens in the Universe. What is called ‘chance’, something incredible, unexplainable, or a miracle today, becomes easily comprehensible tomorrow as we advance in knowledge.
The Universe Is An Absolute Reality – Universal Laws Never Change or Deviate – It Has Been Created For A Definite Purpose – Not For Mere Play – It Has Been Designed For Just Recompense of Every Action
10:5 …. God has created the Universe as the absolute reality and for a definite purpose. …
35:43 No change you will ever find in the laws of God, and no deviation you will ever find in them ….. [And you will never see God’s laws changing or deviating. 6:34, 6:116, 10:64, 17:77, 18:27, 33:38, 33:62, 35:43, 40:85, 48:23]
7:54 …. Remember! To Him belongs the World of Creation, and to Him belongs the World of Command. Exalted is God, the Lord of the Worlds. [10:3, 11:7, 13:2, 25:59, 50:38, 57:4, See 41:10]
18:27 …. None can alter His Words …. [His laws in Theory (Kalimaatillah), and His laws in Practice as implemented in the Universe (Sunnatillah), never change. 6:34, 6:116, 10:64, 17:77, 18:27, 33:38, 33:62, 40:85, 48:23]
21:16 We have not created the heavens and the earth and all that is between them in mere play, without purpose. [11:7, 45:22, 53:31]
45:22 God has created the heavens and earth with purpose, and that every ‘self’ shall be compensated for what it has earned. And no injustice will be done to them.
Just as the Divine laws govern the Universe, they also govern our physical bodies.
Why Not Let The Divine Laws Govern Our Conduct As Well? Guess What? That Is What Islam Is.
This is another beauty of the Quran that it rationally negates all superstitions and false dogmas of the past, present and future. There is not a single intellectual inquiry that the brightest human mind could raise and its answer is not already given in the Book.
Another very significant factor has been quietly playing its role in this regard. The Quran has been, perceptibly and imperceptibly, making a Universal impact on human civilization during the last fourteen centuries. The celebrated French surgeon, thinker and historian, Robert Briffault (1876-1978) has very convincingly elaborated this fact in his remarkable work, "The Making of Humanity."
The Quran Is On The March
"The ideas that inspired the French Revolution and the Declaration of Rights that guided the framing of the American Constitution and inflamed the struggle for independence in the Latin American countries [and elsewhere] were not inventions of the West. They find their ultimate inspiration and source in the Holy Koran. ….“The Renaissance of Europe did not take place in the 15th century. Rather it began when Europe learned from the culture of the Arabs. The cradle of European awakening is not Italy. It is the Muslim Spain.” (Robert Briffault, The Making of Humanity)
1. Despotism: At the time of the advent of Islam in 610 CE, kings and tyrants were ruling countries, nations and tribes. There was no idea of human liberty and rule of law. The Quran thundered:
No person has the right to command obedience of people even though he be a messenger of God. [3:79]
Command belongs to God alone. [6:57]
Now look at the recent history. Isn't the world moving away from despotism, kingdoms and autocracies?
2. Democracy: It is often thought that Bacon, Rousseau, Locke and other European thinkers laid down the foundations of modern democracy. But the Quran had decreed 14 centuries ago:
The affairs of the believers are a matter of counsel. [42:38]
Muslim rulers were elected and then obtained allegiance of the masses. (Ironically, autocratic rule today is seen mostly among countries that call themselves Muslim. This is another instance of the Muslims' departure from the Quran).
3. Human worship: The exalted Messenger broke the idols of personalities. The greatest man who ever walked this earth kept repeating,
"I am but a mortal like you.” [18:110]
Since the exalted Messenger's advent human worship has been dwindling throughout the world.
4. Racism: 14 centuries ago the whole world was drenched in racism. Aristotle taught around 500 BC that the Greeks were superior to all nations. He ‘owned’ 40 slaves and brought 40 logics in support of slavery. The Romans divided their own people among classes. There were about 8 slaves per Roman elite. India demonstrated racism to an extreme degree. A newborn's whole life depended on whether he was born into a Brahman, Khatri, Vaish, or Shudra family.
Muhammad (S) toppled the world of false traditions, "There is no superiority of a black over a white or a white over a black. All of you belong to the same single stock. The best among you is the one who is best in conduct." [Farewell Address, 49:13]
Who is the considered the greatest leader of these times? It is Nelson Mandela, who won the battle against apartheid.
5. Human Rights: Here I suggest that the reader examine three most celebrated documents on human rights:
- The British Magna Carta (1215 CE)
- The American Constitution (1787 CE)
- The United Nations Charter of Human Rights (1945)
Then study only the brief "Farewell Sermon" of Messenger Muhammad, the exalted, and compare. The intelligently written human documents pale in comparison to just one sermon of Muhammad (S)!
The Quran had declared in the 7th century, "Indeed, We have conferred dignity on all children of Adam” (regardless of where the child is born). [17:70]
Moral Code of the Quran:
a. Equal human dignity by birth. (17:70, 95:4)
b. Gender equity. (4:32, 33:35)
c. Superiority by character only. (49:13, 46:19)
d. Rule of law, not of individuals. (3:79)
e. Full compensation of work. (53:39, 53:41, 39:70, 37:39)
f. Provision of basic needs. (20:118-119)
g. Security of faith, life, mind, honor, and property. (6:109, 6:152, 2:269, 17:36, 24:2, 22:40, 6:152, 5:90, 2:195, 5:32, 17:32, 17:35, 17:29, 83:1)
h. Choice of spouse. (4:3, 4:19)
i. Freedom of religion. (2:148, 2:193, 2:256, 4:88, 5:48, 6:104, 6:107-108, 7:177-178, 10:99, 12:108, 18:29, 22:39-40, 27:80-81, 39:41, 56:79, 73:19)
j. Freedom of expression. (2:42, 3:71)
k. Redress of grievances. (4:148)
l. Right to privacy. (33:53, 24:27)
m. Care of the handicapped. (4:36, 70:24)
n. Presumption of innocence. (49:6)
o. Sanctity of name and lineage. (49:11, 33:4)
p. Right to residence. (4:100, 2:85, 6:41)
q. Aesthetic choice. (18:31, 76:13-15)
r. Protection of chastity. (17:32, 24:2)
s. Race, color, gender, lineage, wealth, nothing, nothing but good conduct, is the only criterion of honor. (49:13)
t. Degrees of people according to their deeds. (2:212, 3:163, 6:132)
It is noteworthy that human rights outlined in the Quran are not subject to the whims of nations or individuals.
6. The Caste System: The exalted Messenger declared and established human brotherhood and equality by personal example. He belonged to the noblest of tribes and families. Yet, he humbly repeated "I am a mortal just like you." He further advised his closest family members that being a relative of Muhammad will be of no avail to them. He established that the only criterion of superiority among men and women is their conduct. Color, creed, family, gender, wealth would not impart honor to any individual.
Now which way is the world moving?
7. Slavery: The exalted Messenger shook up the so-called masters of men, "Their mothers had born them free. How could you enslave them? What if you were made their slaves and they were made your masters!"
The Quran, while explicitly pronouncing equality and brotherhood of all men, ordered to "Free all slaves for ransom or better as kindness." [47:4] The emancipation of slaves (male and female) took place without shedding a drop of blood. It was a noble revolution in the hearts of people. Without the Divine Light, the 19th century America, even under the great leadership of Abraham Lincoln, had to sacrifice one million dead and wounded attempting to abolish slavery!
8. Priesthood: At the dawn of Islam, priesthood was the worst oppressor of humanity. They were considered to possess infinite occult powers. They enjoyed greater authority than the kings did. They could condemn the "Children of God" to be hanged, crucified or burnt alive!
The Quran announced that God is the only Knower of the Unseen. [72:26] There is no medium between man and God because He is “closer to him than the Vena Cava." [50:16]
9. Womens' Rights: In the times when the woman was considered the property of the man and was treated worse than slaves; when "Eve" and "evil" were considered synonymous and woman was a "shameful load of sin", when Christian conferences were discussing questions such as
- Does woman have a soul? - Is she human? - Will she be resurrected?
The Quran declared:
"Women have rights unto you as you have rights unto them." [2:187]
"Every person will be rewarded according to one's actions, male or female." [4:32]
And the exalted Prophet taught:
"Paradise lies at the feet of your mothers."
"The best among you is the one who is best to his wife."
"O Men! You will be questioned about your treatment of women."
On the other hand, the New Testament still teaches: "Let the woman learn in silence . . . She is to keep silent . . . Adam was not deceived but the woman was deceived and became a transgressor. (Timothy 2:11-15). "The head of every man is Christ, the head of a woman is her husband . . . for if a woman will not veil herself then she should have her head shaved . . . woman [was created] for man" (Corinthians 11:3-10).
It is interesting to note that women gained the right to vote in 1920 in the USA. When did Muslim women attain it? In the 7th century!
10. Science: While Europe was struggling through the Dark Ages, Muslims were performing scientific miracles under the Quranic teaching that natural laws had been made subservient to man. Here is an example of the scientific guidance in the Quran: Until recently, the sun was thought to be stationary in the center of the solar system. The Quran had, however, revealed 1400 years ago,
"The sun is moving along toward its appointed destination."[36:38] Only in the 20th century, science discovered that the sun is moving toward a specific destination at 12 miles per second i.e. 43,200 miles per hour! This destination has even been assigned names, the Solar Apex, the Constellation of Hercules.
“Roger Bacon owed his illumination to the Muslim Moors of Spain. The great figures of European Renaissance could see further because they stood on the shoulders of the giants of the Muslim world. …. Those achievements represent what the Muslim world has been in the past. They also point to what it could become in the future.” (Richard Nixon - Nixon's Ten Commandments)
11. Nationalism: Arnold Toynbee in his 1952 work, The World and the West, called nationalism a form idol worship. In his writing and lectures he repeatedly urged the world leadership to break this idol. After all, who is unaware of the devastation caused to our planet by the World Wars I and II. Nationalism was the obvious root cause of this massive trauma to humanity.
Years before Toynbee, Sir Muhammad Iqbal, on the authority of the Quran, called nationalism "the modern idol which the humanity has sculpted". 14 hundred years ago, the Quran had ordained all mankind to be one nation. [10:19 and many more verses] That announcement left no room for manmade geographical boundaries.
12. Pragmatism: At the dawn of Islam, Greeks were the torchbearers of knowledge in the world but the Greek knowledge rested on theory and logic. Experimentation had no place in their system of learning. Aristotle had written that women were deficient in intellect because they had only 28 teeth. He never even bothered to look! He also stated that an egg would perpetually float in the ocean! It was only Islam that taught mankind of the necessity of testing a theory or ideology by way of experimentation.
17:36 And you shall not follow blindly any information of which you have no direct knowledge. (Using your faculties of perception and conception) you must verify it for yourself. In the Court of your Lord, you will be held accountable for your hearing, sight, and the faculty of reasoning.
Let Us Continue:
I most humbly shelter myself with Allah against the reprehensible promptings of all evil sources including my own ego.
[‘Shayitaan’ = Satan = The straying Ego = Selfish desire = Self-glorification = False pride = Desire that rebels against the higher controls of sound judgment. Emotions that rebel against the Permanent Moral Values = Intrinsic or extrinsic evil prompting = Negative peer pressure = Violent emotions = A rumor monger, slanderer = A hinderer of good = He who spreads corruption and disorder in the Earth = Anyone who impels others into violating the Permanent Moral Values = Bad company = Anything or Anyone that deceives or charms people into violating Divine Laws = Any being or influence that alienates man from the Creator and, thus, distances itself from Divine Grace. 2:14, 4:38, 4:60, 4:83, 4:119, 5:90-91, 6:43, 6:143, 7:200, 17:26-27, 22:3-4, 25:28-29, 31:21, 67:5.]
With the Glorious Name of God, the Ultimate Source of Instant Beneficence and Eternal Mercy Who embraces the entire Universe nourishing and taking care of all things for becoming what they are meant to be, just as a mother's womb nourishes the embryo to completion without any returns.
The Quran Is For All [2:112, 34:28, 49:13]
2:112 Nay, whoever submits his whole being to God, and he is a doer of good to humanity, his reward is with his Lord. Then, no fear shall come upon them nor shall they grieve.
34:28 (O Messenger) We have sent you as a bringer of glad news and as a warner to mankind at large, but most people are (at this time) unaware of this fact.
49:13 O Mankind! We have created you male and female, and have made you nations and tribes so that you may affectionately come to know one another. Certainly, the most honored among you, in the Sight of God, is the one who is best in conduct. God is Knower, Aware.
The Quran is also a unique book in that it offers falsification tests.
1. The Quran is the only scripture to assert that if it were from other than God, there would be found in it much contradiction. Close examination fails to reveal one single contradiction in the Book.
2. It also challenges the entire mankind to get together and bring one chapter like the ones in the Quran. [2:23, 4:82, 17:88]
3. The Quran presents another beautiful and most pragmatic falsification test. It invites the people, among which the exalted Prophet lived, to reflect on his meticulous character. The people of Arabia used to call him Al-Amin (the trustworthy) and As-Sadiq (the truthful) even before he was commissioned to the prophetic office.
7:184 Has it never occurred to them that there is no fault whatsoever in their fellow-man? He has lived a whole life among you ….
10:16 Say, ….I have dwelt among you a whole lifetime before this. Will you not, then, use your sense?”
Not a single person rose to deny this noble proclamation of the Quran. It is amazing that throughout history only 35 questions or objections have been brought up concerning the Quran and each of these have been satisfactorily answered in the Book 1400 years ago.
Over the last 14 centuries, advancing human knowledge has been proving the truth of the following statement in the Quran.
41:53 In time We will show them Our signs in the utmost Horizons and within themselves, so that it will become clear to them that this Qur’an is certainly the truth. Is it not enough for them to know that your Lord is Witness to all things (including this proclamation)? [9:31-33, 13:31, 14:48, 18:48, 41:53, 48:28, 51:20-21, 61:9]
Whenever science proves and establishes some theory as fact, people notice with amazement that it has been present in the Quran for fourteen centuries! For example,
51:47 And it is We Who built the Universe with power, and certainly, it is We Who are steadily expanding it.
[The expansion of the Universe was first proposed by the Belgian cosmologist Georges Lemaitre and the Russian scientist A. Friemann. In 1929, it was observed for the first time by the American astronomer Edwin Hubble. 55:5, 36:38-40]
Who taught such knowledge to the exalted Prophet in the middle of a barren desert centuries ago? Much detail on the subject is given in my book, “Who Wrote The Quran?” [Some mind-boggling references: 5:17, 13:2, 21:30, 21:33, 24:45, 36:36, 36:40, 43:12 etc]
Now, Some Glorious Teachings of the Quran:
How God Nourishes the Universe:
God nourishes the entire Universe just as a mother’s womb nourishes the embryo to completion without returns. [Rahman]
What is Satan?
It is no extrinsic entity. The Satan resides in you. It is nothing but one’s inflated ego. [Ash-Shayitaan]
Where is this Universe going?
The entire Universe is in a state of journey to its appointed destination and all things in it are undergoing evolution to become what they are meant to be. [1:3 Yaum-id-Deen]
There is a coherent plan in the Universe, though I don't know what it is a plan for. [British astronomer, author, Sir Fred Hoyle]
Human Dignity As A Birth Right
All humans are created equally worthy of dignity as a birth right. [17:70]
Respect and honor all human beings irrespective of their color and creed. [17/70]
There is no such thing as Original Sin. All children are born without the blot of their ancestors’ sin. [17:70]
53:38 No person shall bear the load of another.
Free all captives either as an act of kindness or ransom as soon as the battle is over. There is no third option. [47:4]
No one is allowed to enslave another human being. [3:79]
A Most Responsible Community
Muslims must see to it that no people oppress others. [2:143]
Never commit aggression. God does not love aggressors. [2:190]
Man is the only creation given the capacity to attain knowledge. [2:31]
Humans are the only creation granted free will. [2:256, 18:29]
There is no such thing as fatalism. [As you sow so shall you reap. 53:39]
Do not deprive yourselves of the good things of life. [5:87]
57:27 … As for monastic asceticism - We had never ordained it to them. They invented it themselves to seek God’s approval. But then, they did not uphold even the Gospel with right observance.
A good deed is one that increases human potential and helps others. [2:62, 13:17]
The real existence on earth is of the one that benefits humanity. [13:17]
Love of Wealth
Humans are too zealous in the love of wealth. [100:8]
The Forbidden Tree
What was/is the Forbidden Tree? Mankind branching off and dividing like the branches of a tree based on selfishness, race, color, nationalism and wealth. It was not the “Tree of knowledge” or the “Tree of eternal life”. [2:35, 49:13]
(Half truth is a whole lie.) Do not confound the truth with falsehood. [2:42]
Do not knowingly conceal the truth. [2:42]
Conveying the truth is a duty, convincing people is not. [3:20]
Never cloak the truth with falsehood. [3:71]
People knowingly utter much falsehood. [3:78]
People detest the Truth, yet do not compromise it to conform to people’s whims. [23:70-71]
Clarity of Expression
Speak words straight to the point. [33:70]
Say what you mean and mean what you say. [3:167]
When you voice an opinion, be just, even if it is against yourself or a family member. [4:135, 6:152]
Never give false witness. [25:72]
Abstain from lying and bearing false witness. [22:30]
Do not hide testimony. [2:283]
Keep a spotless character and live with honor. [7:26, 74:4]
Good conduct decorates you beyond and above decent garments. [7:26]
Do What You Say
Practice what you preach. [2:44]
Do not say or promise what you won’t do. [61:3]
God does not restrict His bounties to any individuals or communities, so shouldn’t you. [17:20]
Do not walk on earth with pride. Neither could you bore through the earth, nor could you become as tall as the mountains. [The body language speaks louder than words. 17:37]
Some Do’s [16:90]
Giving to relatives
Some Don’ts [16:90]
Killing [5:32, 6:140, 6:151, 17:31]
Evicting people from their homes [2:85, 60:8]
Persecution, terror, oppression [2:191]
People who do not use their senses and the faculty of reason live a subhuman life. [7:179]
The majority is not necessarily right, rather most of the people follow conjecture and are misguided. [6:116, 10:36, 10:60, 16:75]
How To Treat People
How we should treat our parents (17:23-25), our near and dear ones, neighbors, orphans and the downtrodden (4:36-37), wives (2:188, 4:20), children (6:153), widows (4:20), enemies (5:9), companions (24:61, 58:12).
4:36 … Treat kindly your parents, relatives, the orphans and those who have been left alone in the society. Take care of the needy, the disabled, those whose hard earned income is insufficient to meet their needs, those whose businesses have stalled, and those who have lost their jobs. You shall treat kindly your related neighbors, and unrelated neighbors, companions by your side in public gatherings, or public transportation. Be generous to the needy wayfarer, the homeless son of the street, and the one who reaches you in a destitute condition. Be nice to people who work under your supervision. God does not love those who are proud, the boastful.
The best among you are those who treat their household kindly. [The exalted Prophet]
Never take away the property you have gifted to a wife. [4:20]
Fairness in Dealings
Do not devour the wealth and property of one another in a wrongful manner, nor bribe the officials or the judges to deprive others of their rightful belongings. This kind of behavior drags down your own humanity and harms the collective welfare of the society. [2:188]
Children, Care and Justice
God commands you further: Do not approach the wealth of the orphan except to improve it until they come of age with full maturity of body and mind. Give full weight and full measure in all your dealings. Uphold justice in all aspects of your life.
Peace And Friendship With Enemies
5:8 .... Let not the hatred of any people move you away from justice.
Since good and evil cannot be alike, repel evil with what is decent. Then he, between whom and you there was enmity, may become a close friend. [41:34]
Make peace between contending factions. [49:9]
Remember that today’s enemy could be tomorrow’s friend. [60:7]
Hold in good esteem anyone who proclaims peace. [4:94]
…. You do nothing wrong by dining together or apart. But whenever you enter houses, salute one another with a blessed, goodly greeting from God. [24:61]
58:11 … When you are told to make room in the assemblies (and accommodate one another in your society), do make room. God will open up His resources for you. And when you are told to rise up, do rise up (to the occasion)….
Relationship Between Spouses
Spouses must be a source of comfort to each other. [25:74]
Husband and Wife are like garments for each other, close to each other, source of mutual comfort, complementing each other, trustworthy and keepers of privacy, reason for décor, and redressers of faults. [2:187]
Virtuous spouses are a supreme gift from the Providence. [3:15]
Do not let the immature orphans manage their property that God has entrusted with you as guardians, until they are able to make sound financial decisions. Feed and clothe them decently, take care of all their needs, interact with them kindly and speak to them in a decent, recognized manner. [4:5]
Interpersonal Relationship – Courtesy & Kindness
Speak to people in plain terms with full understanding of their viewpoints. [4:63]
Speak to people kindly and treat them nicely. [2:83]
When you are greeted with a greeting, respond with a better greeting or, at least, in the same manner. [4:86]
Greet each other saying, “Salamun alaikum!” (Peace and salutes to you!) [6:54]
When you enter your own home or the home of somebody else, compliment the inmates with a blissful greeting. [24/61]
Obtain permission and greet people with peace before entering any houses. [24:27]
(A benevolent society begins at home.) Your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him, and always be kind to your parents. If one of them or both attain old age, do not utter the slightest harsh word to them. Never repel them and always address them respectfully. [17:23]
Lower for them the wing of kindness and humility and say, "My Lord! Bestow upon them Your grace as they raised me in kindness since I was little." [17:24]
Treat kindly your parents, relatives, the orphans and those who have been left alone in the society. [4:36]
46:15 We have enjoined upon the human kindness to his parents. …
Those In Need
Be generous to your parents, family and relatives, and to orphans, widows, and those left without any means to make progress in the society, and to those who have suffered loss of income, the disabled, the needy, the poor. [2:83, 17:53]
Take care of the needy, the disabled, those whose hard earned income is insufficient to meet their needs, those whose businesses have stalled, and those who have lost their jobs. [2:215]
Be generous to the needy wayfarer, the homeless son of the street, and the one who reaches you in a destitute condition. [8:41]
Be nice to people who work under your supervision. [2:83, 2:215, 4:36, 17:53]
Manners, Attitude, Behavior
Speak to one another in a kind manner and treat one another nicely. [2:83, 17:53]
Shun flamboyant behavior. [22:30]
Remember that all mankind is one community. [2:213, 10:19, 23:52]
Be a source of tranquility and comfort to others. [3:134]
Pardon people gracefully. [3:134]
Avoid open criticism of people unless you have been wronged. [4:148]
Help one another in acts of collective benefit and security and not in the acts of societal harm and discord. [5:2]
Make room for others to let them make progress in the society. [58:11]
Visit people at the appointed time and avoid futile conversation. [33:53]