Dear Br. Anwer Suri,
In my humble view the Exalted Prophet Muhammad laid out the foundation for the Golden Era of Islam. He was not only God’s Prophet but also the Chief Administrator, Commander-in-Chief, and Chief Justice of the first Islamic State set up in Medina. Hence, Masjid served as the Prophet’s Office, Parliament, Courthouse, and Headquarters for the Army. All state affairs were discussed and decisions made in the Masjid. It was not a house of worship. The Prophet and his companions were busy building the first Islamic State. They did not have time for rituals, such as Namaz and Roza. How did I come to this conclusion? Please keep reading.
We can find answers and solve even complex problems by employing our abilities of reasoning and inference. As a matter of fact the golden era of discoveries and inventions began when learned people in Europe started applying logic or reason to solve problems. This was the same route early Muslims had taken centuries ago. Many Western intellectuals acknowledge that Arab Muslims not only translated and preserved the works of Greeks but they also built upon the ancient knowledge and contributed immensely to advance sciences. Once upon a time the international language was Arabic. Students from all over the world travelled to Islamic countries to seek knowledge. And teachers who knew Arabic were in high demand even in Europe. Doubtless, it was Prophet Muhammad who set early Muslims on the path of learning, discoveries, and inventions. If early Muslims were just Namazi and Rozadar, the world would have never witnessed the Golden Age of Islam. Then, what went wrong?
Regrettably, later “Muslims” took the opposite direction under the influence and misguidance of Ghazali and company. Ghazali and his followers declared Mathematics, Physics, and other sciences worthless and discouraged people from studying them. Instead they introduced Darse-Nizami whose syllabus is confined to teaching Nahw, Tafseer, Fiqh, Balagah, Mantiq, and Hadith. Also, these Imams forced Muslims to wear this heavy albatross (Namaz, Roza, and other non-Quranic rituals and beliefs) around their necks. As a result Muslims stopped to be productive.
You can check your local library and Internet to learn more about the Golden Age of Islam as well as the Renaissance and the Enlightenment Eras of Europe.
As far as I understand only real Muslims can implement Salat provided that they are in power in the state where they try implementing Salat. To understand the real meaning of the Salat, please read Brother Dr. Qamar Zaman’s book “Haqiqat Salat” online. Here is the website address.
Next, I will answer your other questions one at a time to keep my posts short.