Establishing Deen by Ansari Shakur
Salaam Alaikum - GOD commands us to Establish the Divine System! Again and again in Quran we are reminded to establish The Just Economic Order. How can we implement this type of Governmental System today? First we must find believers (Christians, Atheists, Jews, Men & Women) who believe in establishing a Just Society; built on Freedom, Justice and Equality. If we can find committed believers then we can began Our Program.
To begin I am a African American, I have experienced first hand the pro’s and con’s of this Capitalistic Society. What I want to do is improve on area’s that are Strong and do away with area’s that are Weak; using GOD’s Laws in The Quran as our Base. A committed Believer does not have to proclaim their belief via worship but I believe a True Believer Proves their Belief via ACTION. It’s not about what we Profess, it’s all about what we are DOING. I want to explain, that I do not follow Hadith. I believe the Best Hadith is Quran.
17/36 – Do not follow that you have no knowledge of. Remember, your hearing, seeing and faculty of thinking, all will be questioned.
35/31 Whatever We have revealed to you from the Book is (absolutely) truth.
2/2 There is no room of uncertainty, ambiguity, skepticism or psychological perplexity in this Book. It is out and out a truth; it is definitive, neither speculative, nor presumptive; it transcends the barriers of skepticism.
It is written in the Masnat Iman Ahmed that the companions of the Messenger (PBUH) said: Whatever we heard from the Messenger (PBUH), we used to have it written down. Then one day the Messenger (PBUH) appeared in front of us and commanded: What is it that you are used to write? We submitted: whatever we hear from you (we write it down). Then he commanded: What? Another book along with that of Allah’ s book? (i.e. it ought not be done). He commanded again: (Manifest elegance: Keep pure) the Book of Allah and keep it pure from any kind of doubt-speck. (The companions of the Messenger, PBUH, say): Then whatever we had written, we gathered it in a ground; then we burnt it up. (Tadveen-i-Hadith, p. 249)
About Hazrat Abu Bukr Siddique, Imam Zehbi has also written this tradition: After the death of Rasoolullah (PBUH), Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique gathered the people and said, “You narrate traditions from Rasoolullah (PBUH) in which you contradict conjointly. And the people to come after you will become more sordid in their contrariety hence it ought to be that nothing be narrated confided to Rasoolullah (PBUH). Then if any one amongst you asks (of it), tell: there is Allah’s Book between you and us, hence it ought to be that ‘the things this Book has made lawful, declare them lawful and those it has made unlawful, declare them unlawful’.” (Tazkarat-ul-Haffaz Zehbi Quoted in Jadveen-i-Hadith, p. 321)
Imam Zehdi has also written: Hazrat Aesha said: My father (Hazrat Abu Bakr) assembled the traditions of Allah’s Messenger (PBUH). Their number rose to 500. Then it was seen at one night that he (i. e. Hazrat Siddique, the great) was adversely turning on his side. I beseeched: Is it due to any physical pain that you are tuning your side or has any news reached you (the hearing of which has made you restless)? He did not respond to it. When it was morning, he said: “My daughter, bring the copy of the Ahadith you have with you.” He, then, asked to bring fire and inflamed that copy. (Tadveen -i-Hadith, pp. 285 - 88)
Regarding Hazrat Ummar, Allama Ibn-e-Abdul Barr has copied this tradition in his reputed book, Jamey Biyan-ul-Ilm: Hazrat Umar Bin Khattab desired that the Sanen i.e. the traditions, be got transformed in written statements. He, then, asked the companions of the Messenger for a legal opinion regarding the lawfulness of this write-up. The people asseverated that the traditions might be got written down. But Hazrat Umar was not heartily satisfied with this counsel, so he practiced divination on this matter for one month complete. Then – one morning God vested in him perfect sense of solace for this decision – Hazrat Umar said to the people I intended to get the traditions written down. I thought of the nations, which have passed you by. They wrote books, pounced upon them, and gave up Allah’s Book; I swear I do not desire Allah’s Book to be mingled with any of the others. (Tadveen-i-Hadith, p.394)
And it was because of the fact that as the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) had himself said: Do not write any thing else from me except the Quran; whosoever has written from me any other than the Holy Quran, he ought to scrub it off. (Saheeh Muslim)
I think it would be wise of us to focus on ways to implement Quran into our Society with True and Committed Believers. Regarding the establishment of Deen - G.A. Parwez expressed these ideas.
Today we have God’s Book as an authority. For us nothing should be an obvious fact unless it is judged on this standard. The Quran is a guiding light for our knowledge and wisdom just like the sun’s light for our eyes.
We should critically analyse everything that is presented to us as the obvious in the light of the Quran. But for a blind follower it is very difficult. This is the reason that the people who believed in the inherited ‘facts’ defied every prophet’s call and they never felt a need to critically examine those obvious facts.
Unfortunately in our society most of the things that we considered as facts or “proved matters” come under this category of obvious. If you analyse them in the light of Quran, you will be astonished to know that many unrealistic ideas have taken the position of established facts.
One of the main reason for this situation is that when Jews, Christians and Zoroastrians, who were unable to oppose Islam openly, hatched an organized conspiracy. Just like Saint Paul, when failed to defeat the Christians of the early era through torture and intimidation, he put the cloak of Christianity and spread his own religion, instead of the religion of Jesus, hence you will not find true Christianity anywhere. Every Christian is following Paulism but thinks that it is true Christianity.
Similarly, defeated Jews, Christian and Zoroastrians took the cloak of Islam and systematically spread their own ideas and innovations in Islam.
Today in our religious practices, only a small portion is Deen that was prescribed for us by God. The rest is based on these innovations. Other-worldliness of Christians, ritualism and priesthood of Jews and ancestor worship of Zoroastrians are the elements of the present Islamic religion which I describe as madhab and call the Quranic system of life as Deen, because Quran presented Deen, not madhab. The word madhab(Religion) is not mentioned in Quran.
Today what is called as revival of Deen and introduction of Shariah (for which Muslims are invited) is actually the invitation to return towards these three elements (as noted above). Beliefs and practices based on these three elements are inherently considered as obvious. We cannot find the real Islam if we kept continue to follow the Shariah. Christianity, even if it wants to get rid of Paulism, cannot find real Christianity because it does not have the book of God in its original form. But we are privileged that God’s book – The Quran – is preserved in its original shape.
My crime is that I invite people to analyse those traditionally accepted obvious in the light of Quran.
Here is what GOD says of DEEN.
Those who (wish to journey through life in honor and security), believe in the Unseen. (They recognize the Law of Cause and Effect although the stages may not always be obvious to them) and establish the Divinely Prescribed System of Life, and set up the Economic Order of Zakaat keeping open for others the resources that We have granted them.
[Divine System = A noble society in which Permanent Moral Values rule the hearts and minds of men and women. There are neither masters nor subjects in such a system, since therein prevails the Rule of Law. 2:177, 22:41, 94:78. AlGhayeb = The Unseen: The likeness of a seed that is beneath the soil hidden from a farmer’s view. Yet the farmer believes that given proper environment and care the seed will sprout. 9:119, 57:20, 89:27-30. Salaat = To follow closely, like a runnersup (Musalli) follows the winning horse (Saabiq) = Follow God’s Commands closely. Aqimussallat = Establish the System that facilitates the following of Divine Commands. Zakaat = The Just Economic Order where everyone works according to one’s capacity and is compensated according to the needs. People spend on others or give to the Central Authority (Islamic government) whatever is surplus (2:219). And they do so whenever they earn any income (6:141). The System of Zakaat is managed by the Central Authority that ensures the development of the individuals and the society. The 2.5 percent annual mandatory charity is a nonQur’anic concept that trivializes the comprehensive Qur’anic System of Zakaat.
This very legacy Abraham left to his children, and so did Jacob, saying, “O My children! Indeed, God has chosen for you the Way of Life. Therefore, let not death overtake you except that you are Muslimoon (Submitters).”
[Deen = The Divinely Prescribed System of Life = Al Islam. It has more to do with the collective life of humans and the science of sociology. It concerns itself with people living in this world collectively in peace according to a Code of permanent values that ensures success in both lives. Religion (Mazhab) is more of a generic term signifying a creed involving certain rites and rituals and seeking individual salvation. Islam being a Collective System of Life is, in fact, a challenge to religion]
Those who, if We give them power in the land, establish Salaat (the Divine System), set up the Just Economic Order of Zakaat (in which wealth circulates freely to nourish every member of the society, and the basic needs of all individuals are taken care of). Their rule ensures that the Permanent Moral Values are promoted, and what the Qur’an forbids, is discouraged. And in their governance all affairs are decided according to God’s Decrees (given in the Qur’an. 5:44).
(O Prophet) convey to people all that is revealed to you of the Book, and establish the Divine System. For, certainly, establishment of the Divine System will shut off lewdness, stinginess and behavior contrary to the Permanent Values. This is so, because God’s Law is the Greatest Law that can give you eminence. And God knows whatever you people contrive on your own. [21:10, 21:24, 23:70, 43:43-44, 70:21-27. Fahasha includes miserliness, and Munkar is all behavior that goes against Permanent Values given in the Qur’an]
What exactly is this Divine System Allah is referring to? It is my humble opinion that by Divine System or Just Economic Order GOD is referring to, is Government. Now that is an interesting prospect, because if Allah is referring to Government, then we The Collection of Believers must gain control of Government and after gaining Control then Implement Laws based on The Holy Quran. How do we get control of a total corrupt Institution that is run by Powerful yet Unseen Forces and then Replace it with a System that takes care of the poor, elderly and orphans, providing Freedom, Justice and Equality to all. Free Healthcare, Education and Peace. We would be Replacing Capitalism with a Just Economic System! Thus Defeating the Oppressors of the Weak. Basically giving anyone a fair shot at life, provided you live your life in a Ethical Manner.
As Adrian Salbuchi an Analyst from Argentina has pointed out. We the people gaining control of Government is a daunting task, how could we possibly gain control of an entity that is run by Special Interests Groups, Financial Institutions, Private Defense Contractors, Drug Dealers and Wall Street? We are talking about Corporations and People that are playing at the Big Boys Table; Trillions of dollars at stake in this game. These People would shame a Devil if there really was one in existence. These People are so wicked and devious, I think the Satan of Jesus times, if he were around today would run to get saved.
I think this is the question of our time. We only live once, in my opinion we must Man UP! and ask ourselves how is it that I want to be remembered? Do we want to Punk Out or Be Remembered as MEN & WOMEN that stood up and Defeated Oppression! How do (WE) and what do I mean by WE? Who is the WE in this equation? When I say WE I am not only referring to Muslims or Men. Everybody in here can do something. Woman, Men, Teen-Agers, Christians, Jews, Atheists; I am simply referring to any Human Being that Believes In Human Rights for all and wants to Live in a Society of Just Laws, where everyone is on an equal playing field, and where there is no Illegal Trans-National Corporations, False Federal Reserve, Special Interests Groups, Capitalism, Wall Street, Private Defense Contractors (BlackWater). But rather there is a System that is Based on GOD’s Latest and Greatest Revelation The Quran where every citizen is guaranteed Freedom, Justice and Equality.
This is not a shot in the dark! I am reminded of the verse in Quran where Saul’s Army was going into battle and because they knew they had GOD Almighty with them and they saw the enemy fewer than what they really were, and conversely because Goliath’s Army was full of non-believers they saw Saul’s Army in more abundant numbers than what they really were.
The Commander Saul then marched along with his soldiers to face the armies of Jaloot (Goliath). A stream came along in their way. Saul, in order to create discipline among his soldiers and to test their resolve commanded them to refrain from drinking that water, except a sip out of the hand. But except a few, they drank it. When they crossed the stream, he and the believers with him, they complained, “This day we cannot cope with Goliath and his armies.” But those who were convinced that they must meet God (those who were marching forward in the Cause of God) said, “How often, by God’s leave, has a small force overwhelmed a big army! For, God is with the steadfast!”
Thus praying to their Lord with full conviction in the Law of Cause and Effect, they advanced toward the invading armies of Goliath.
And, they routed the much bigger force by the Law of God, as David, who was one of the officers of Saul, slew the mighty Commander, Goliath. Then God honored David with a powerful kingdom, along with wisdom, sound judgment, and knowledge. We have decreed that those who spend their youth in righteousness (doing works that benefit humanity) shall be granted knowledge and wisdom. Annihilation of the mighty armies of Goliath bears a historical lesson for mankind that if Balance in Nature were not one of the Laws, tyrants would ransack the earth and its inhabitants unopposed. But, oppression brings revolution and eventually, the oppressed overthrow the oppressors. God is Limitless in His Bounties to the Worlds. [12:22, 22:39, 28:14]
To be honest there is only a few thousand people or possibly less, maybe a few hundred People that Rule this World. WE, the believers number in the Millions. The problem is they are few, yet powerful and organized. We are many yet unorganized, confused, drugged, divided and lacking vision! However defeating this Paper Tiger is very possible.
Let’s talk about The Power Elite. The Power Elite Rule the World. The Rothschilds, JP Morgan, Rockefeller, Queen of England. They want the entire Planet to live in Fear! You see, this War System requires a Fear instilling enemy. And if they don’t have an enemy they’ll make one up! Like Osama Been Forgotten! The Pakistani Prime Minister Bhutto stated in a interview that Osama was killed years ago and just a few weeks after her interview she was assassinated.
There is a war being waged on us right now, and we don’t even know it! WE ARE AT WAR! Yet we are to busy Watching Football, playing Games, Partying! They are planning our Destruction! These Elite in Power are at War with The Common Man and Woman. Starting with the poison in the food, look at the toothpaste it tells us to call a Center for Disease control if we swallow it, the steroids they put in the chicken and beef, the Death Burgers they feed us, the lies they teach us in school – Columbus discovered America? How can you discover a Country that has had a striving Civilization for over 30,000 years? That’s just like me saying I discovered your Car in the parking lot and now its mine. The pollutants in the air, they even poison our water with fluoride.
Then the false wars they continually start, they tell us Iraq had weapons of Mass Destruction that was a LIE and they bomb and MURDER Millions yet what do we do? Then they start to murder Hundreds of Thousands More in Afghanistan, and take over the Opium Drug Market and flood the World with Heroin!
Mankind yearns for Peace we understand this, but those in Power Crave War, THEY LOVE MONEY!! Their MONEY ADDICTS! The Elite in Power; the Politicians, the Bankers, The Bought & Sold for Politicians, that are supposed to Represent our Interest. But are only supporting Corporations & The Dollar Bill! Yet in spite of this, The Supreme Being in the universe has given us all a Duty. We all have this single calling. We must build societies based on Freedom, Justice and Equality - That is our purpose, to provide nourishment for the needy, the orphan and establish a system of income redistribution, and social institutions that safeguard the environment and prevent war.
Now lets examine the practical Reality of Capitalism, the system which Rules The World. In John McMurtry Book – The Cancer Stages of Capitalism, he laid out the case to end this defunct System. Non Living Corporations are conceived as human individuals, in which their only responsibility of business is to make as much money for stockholders as possible without any consequence of the disastrous effects on the human population and the ill effects on the environment.
The freedom of the consumer in the free market in other words is more limited in the freedom it grants than it appears to be. It is only the freedom of those who have enough money to demand what they want. The sale of our work is all of the value we have to sell in the Corporate Market. To be told what to do and how to do it during most of our active waking hours cannot be meaningfully called FREEDOM. It is for this reason that Marx called such a condition of life ‘wage slavery’. One is required to present oneself as an object for sale, and may still find no-one with money who is willing to buy our work or service.
The corporate system is structured to attack the shared base of people’s lives as a competitor (social security, free healthcare, educational programs) against its program of profitable control of all of socities means of life. Life’s requirements do not figure in the Paradigm, there are no rules to protect Human Rights or the quality of the Environment. Life loss itself has no value, this is because each life or good lost in the community or nature is at the same time a new opportunity for the Corporate Manufacture of priced commodities to substitute for it.
The global market corporation is as anti-democratic an institution as exists next to the military bootcamp. Over 80% of all world trade is controlled by the same transnational corporations and that over 80% of all land cultivated for export is similarly controlled. They say the democracy of the corporate market exists. But according to United States Congressional Statistics the top 1% of the population controls more dollar votes of private wealth than the bottom 90% of the society. This is a Democracy where 1% have more voting power than 90%!!!!
Neoclassical economics is based on the premise that market growth produces more happiness as more commodities are bought. If this baseline assumption is false, the paradigm collapses. So the ground shifts to other claims. The Economist, for example, explains that many ‘goods’ can be ‘only enjoyed if others don’t’ [have them]. The falsehood of the first premise is diverted to the nasty fact that some can only enjoy what they have at the expense of others. In the end all that matters is the willingness to pay if you can afford it. This is the only measure of human welfare that exists in market and neoclassical doctrine.
A logical person might think that equating what you pay for something with happiness is insane. But the problem is ignored. Instead, supporters argue that the global market is both ‘productive and efficient’. This assumption does not hold up either. The global market system produces many times more waste than any economic order in history. So as long as pollution and damages to others can be hidden, it is ‘more efficient’ – even if gluttonously wasteful. These ‘externalities’ are kept off the books. That is why this act of robbing and laying waste to the most basic means of human life – breathable air, water aquifers, the oceans, soil fertility – are ignored by both governments and corporations.
Such an economic calculus is fatal but unquestioned. No principle of business or economics has been developed to distinguish commodities that cause disease from goods that enable people’s lives. After 25 years of corporate-led market deregulation, the fall-out is evident. Diseases like cancer increase as chemical carcinogens poison the environment, but are ignored by government food-and-drug overseers, cancer institutes and economists.
The market also discriminates against healthful products unless they promise more profits. The British Medical Journal reported in July 2003 that a daily low-cost pill made up of six known drugs resulted in an 80-per-cent reduction of heart attacks in everyone over 55 – ‘a greater impact on the prevention of disease in the Western world than any known intervention’. Pharmaceutical corporations had little interest because the drugs involved were inexpensive and out of patent. Governments fail to produce the pills themselves because they would be pilloried by corporate PR campaigns for ‘undermining the free market’ – just as public healthcare is still demonized in the US as ‘socialist’.
As governments decline into ‘the best democracies that money can buy’ there is no public authority left to protect the common interest. So public welfare is sacrificed to ‘more global market competitiveness’ – and more robbing our life-system and waste of human life.
Business-led public-relations campaigns demand that social programs be privatized and taxes cut so we can ‘compete in the global market’. More pollution, more waste and more unneeded goods? That’s just ‘giving consumers what they want’. Neoclassical economists tell us the ‘invisible hand’ of competition ensures the ‘social optimum’. This has become the grand narrative of our age. It even appears rigorous and scientific – until humanity is confronted by global climate destabilization and fossil-fuel exhaustion.
Professional economics sees only ‘market demand’, while liberals and postmodernists equate human needs to individual wants. But if the demand for a private weekend jet counts more than the need of millions of African villagers for clean water, then the market produces the weekend jet. The government might even subsidize the company that makes the jets and keep the price of jet fuel low. Meanwhile, thousands of children die daily from water-related illnesses.
The deepest confusion is the equation of private money stocks to ‘capital’. Real capital is wealth that produces more wealth – from ecological services and social infrastructures to scientific knowledge and technologies that produce life goods. All have been subjugated to money-capital which produces nothing.
Life-capital is the wealth of human and ecological life that reproduces and grows in any sane economic order. A sustainable mantle of topsoil, the phytoplankton base of marine life, the biodiverse habitats of species reproduction, the biosphere itself – are all strata of life-capital. The human needs served are all recognized by one principle: whatever our life capacities are reduced without (whether clean air or healthcare) is a life necessity. Whatever does not enable and support these life capacities is not ‘economic’ in the most fundamental sense.
There is one set of life goods that is required by all peoples without which they suffer or die:
• Atmospheric goods – breathable air, open space and light
• Bodily goods – clean water, nourishing foods and waste disposal
• Home and habitat – shelter and a life-enhancing environment
• Care through time – love, safety and healthcare
• Human vocation – meaningful work of value to others
• Economic justice – right to enjoy these life goods and obligation to help provide them.
In conclusion, let’s remain mindful of the commands from Our Supreme Master, The Lord of all The Worlds
3:124 Fearlessness, determination and courage are the Angels Allah sends down upon those who strive in the Cause of Allah(8:10-12, 41:30)
3:126 Courage and Steadfastness are Allah’s Angels.
3:129 Everything in the Universe and everything in the Earth belongs to Allah.
3:132 A benevolent society helps you to grow like a mother’s womb nourishes the embryo.
3:138 The candidates to this Paradise keep their wealth open for Mankind in favorable as well as in adverse circumstances. They divert and sublimate their anger and potentially virulent emotions to creative energy, and becomes a source of tranquility and comfort to people. They pardon people.
3:138 This Quran is a declaration to the entire humankind, a Beacon of Guidance and Admonition for those who wish to Journey through life in blissful honor and security.
3:139 Do not ever lose heart, and grieve not, for you are bound to prevail if you are truly believers.
3:140 Allah does not love those who displace courage with fear.
3:141 The true believers emerge stronger from every challenge.
3:143 You understand that honorable life in this world belongs to those who have conquered the fear of death, and that death is the Gateway to The Eternal Life.
If we can hold on to this Cable of Allah, and Challenge Our Fear and Unite with One Another and take practical steps via an Agenda then we can defeat this enemy.
It is imperative to identify with those people who share our common interests as to those who do not. These Corporations and Banks do not share our interest they support the Never-Ending War Effort. The Huge Corporations and Banks are the ones waging war against US! The War is being waged by the Political, Economic, Financial, Cultural, Technological, Social and Media fronts! But above all of this is the War being waged on our MINDS! The Power Elite wage a war on our mind via Education, for thousands of years education was done by your family, now the prime educator is the Media controlled by The Power Elite. This is very important for us to understand because, if we do not believe we are under attack then we do not defend ourselves, and that’s a nice way to win a war, without firing a single shot.
They have tricked us into believing they are stronger than they really are, and that we, the people are weaker than we really are. They are strong, but NOT that strong. Remember, all it takes to blow-up a huge balloon is a little microscopic pin. Our Duty is to be like the little pins all over the world and burst their balloon!
These Power Elite hide the truth, cover-up, lie, confuse, revert, divert and pervert the truth. Never Fear because, Allah says, ‘Man Plans, then GOD Plans, and Allah is the Best of Planners. There is a saying, ‘He who controls the past controls the present, He who controls the present control the future’.
There are two-side’s to this War. The Power Elite - a well-organized minority, compact yet powerful, but weak due to small numbers. And the other side US, WE the people weak not-unified but Potentially VERY Powerful! WE are to busy to think. We have to WORK, pay bills, feed our babies, we are too caught up in your daily lives to organize. And because of this we have easily succumb to the deceptive tactics of The Power Elite; after all they have the Money the Media, heck they own the world. They OWN THE WORLD.
But, there is one thing they cannot conceal. There is a True and Living ALLAH, a Supreme Being that has proclaimed their time is UP! BUT IT IS UP TO US, TO END THIS MADNESS!! If we grow our testicular fortitude and take a few steps in ending this madness Allah will bless us! But we have to take the first steps.
(Adversity is a great barometer of the strength of personality.) Certainly, We will cause you to go through such tribulations as fear and hunger, loss of wealth and person, and of the fruit of your labor, so that you may test your mettle. Nevertheless, give glad tidings to those who remain unwavering in their resolve.
يأيها الذين امنوا استعينوا بالصبر والصلاة ان الله مع الصابرين
When a calamity befalls them, they do not waver. Rather, they say in word and attitude, “To God we belong, dedicated to His Cause, and every step of ours will advance in the direction shown by Him.” [9:59]
The Creator of all The Worlds lets us decide our Destiny to determine which one of us has lived up to our Potential. We are Masters of our Fate! We are responsible for our actions! We suffer the logical consequences of our actions, and that same Law of Requital which applies to us applies to Nations as well. That Nation that has been charged in excessive Human Rights Violations will be destroyed. It is written throughout The Quran The History of Destroyed nations. From Pharaoh to Lot, to Noah! Likewise a Nation that benefits Humanity, will flourish. The History of the world is littered with the Rise and Fall of Nations. The Real Existence in this Universe is one who benefits the Universe through GOOD ACTIONS! GOD is One! The Mankind is One! Give and Grow! After we pass from this first life we will met with our Creator to be judged on our ACTIONS.
In Conclusion in order to establish Our Just Society we must Keep Ourselves in Order. And the only way to do this is to Remember We Reap what We Sow.
Over it are nineteen.
On the tablet of human life are inscribed nineteen patterns of behavior that lead to the Fire of Regret. They could be the telltale signs written on the tablet of an individual’s life. The intelligent reader may reflect on those patterns and reach one’s own conclusions. According to my humble understanding, the nineteen patterns of behavior that lead to the Hellfire are these:
1. Shirk = Associating others with God. Accepting human authorities parallel to Divine Revelation. Sectarianism. Idol worship in any form. Being content with manmade systems. Worshiping graves, saints, ancestors or one’s own desire. Blind following or accepting religious information without discernment. Failing to use the Divine Word as the Criterion.
2. Ithm = Actions that deplete individual and collective potential. Destroying human lives. Lewd behavior. Discouraging productive work. Causing fear or grief by any means. Indulgence in pursuit of pleasure. 3. ‘Udwan = Creating wedges of discord between people. Causing dissension. Spreading disorder and corruption. Promoting racial, sectarian and nationalistic hatred.
4. Israaf = Wasting resources or one’s own ’self’. Crossing limits. Moving away from moderation. Committing excesses in any aspect of life including Religion. Defying Moral Values given in the Quran. Using intoxicants that waste the human ’self’.
5. M’asiah = Rebelling against God and the rightly guided Central Authority. Bloody crimes on earth. Disruptive behavior. Disobedience of the Word of God and the Messenger as embodied in the Quran. Gambling and usury.
6. Sayyeh = Destabilizing the lives of others. Failing to fulfill the rights of others. Injustice. Inequity. Deceiving in business or other dealings. Falling short in discharging duties. Favoritism.
7. Zulm = Relegating the Truth or displacing anything from its rightful place. Oppressing people. Violating human rights. Hurting others or one’s own ’self’. Doing wrong to God’s creatures and environment. Enslaving bodies and minds.
8. Ifk = Backbiting. Evil scheming. Defaming. Undue criticism. Fault finding. Slander. Presenting the ‘heard’ as ’seen’. Alarmist behavior.
9. Zann = False assumptions about people. Condemnation without investigation. Slander. Falling for superstitions. Belittling the Truth. Following conjecture. Staying out of touch with reality.
10. Jurm = Stealing the fruit of others’ labor. Violating human rights. Being guilty of living subhuman life. Witnessing for falsehood. Depriving others from their rights. Devouring others’ possessions. Not giving share where it is due.
11. Takabbur = False pride. Arrogance. Self-glorification. Holding others in contempt. Refusing to learn and unlearn. Insisting on blind following. Refusing to admit fault. Being forward before the Messages of God. Mocking the Truth. Deeming to ‘know it all’. Considering material goods higher than moral virtue.
12. Ghill = Harboring malice in the heart. Failing to forgive people. Looking forward to take revenge. Plotting to hurt physically, financially or emotionally. Being hateful. Opposition for the sake of opposition. Incriminating others for personal grudge.
13. Ghadhab = Anger. Letting loose virulent emotions. Succumbing to desire. Yelling at others. Intimidating the weak. Losing self-control. Impulsive attitude.
15. Bhukhl = Stinginess. Hoarding. Withholding own wealth and person from serving humanity. Apathy toward the needy. Being greedy.
16. Laghw = Wasting precious time. Idle talk. Meaningless assemblies. Conspiring. Senseless play and pastime.
17. Sadd = Barring oneself or others from the Path of God. Putting forward human thoughts above the Divine Revelation. Hindering immigration from the domain of evil. Antagonizing the Word of God. Presenting falsehood as Truth. Misleading people with conjecture. Hindering the way to the Divinely ordained System of Life.
18. Jadal = Disputation = Argument for the sake of argument. Opposing Divine Messages. Confusing human thought. Confounding the Truth with rhetoric.
19. Kufr = Stubborn denial of the Truth. Ingratitude. Concealing the Truth. Choosing to live in the darkness of ignorance. Knowingly oppose the Truth. Uncritical adherence to ancestral views. Trying to be with the majority without discernment]
The MADINAH CHARTER [MEETHAAQ-E-MADINAH]
The Madinah Charter, written and promulgated by Prophet Muhammad for the pluralistic society, the multi-religious twenty thousand citizens of the City-state of Madinah in 622 CE:
It is truly a remarkable political-constitutional document. It was the first written constitution ever (FN1).
Aristotle's Constitution of Athens (FN2), written on papyrus, discovered by an American missionary in Egypt in 1890 and published in 1891, was actually not a constitution. It was an account of the constitution of the city-state of Athens. Other legal writings on the conduct of ancient societies have been found, but none can be described as a constitution.
The Madinah Charter is the first, and in this, it preceded the American Constitution of 1787, considered by Western authorities as "a landmark document of the Western world … the oldest written national constitution in operation" (FN3) by more than a thousand years! It also preceded the English Feudal Bill of Rights, the Magna Carta of 1215, by almost six centuries! United Nations Charter of Human Rights came into being only in 1945.
Not only is the Madinah Charter important in the sense that it is the first written constitution, it is also modern in the sense that it was promulgated for a plural society, giving equal rights to every citizen as well as giving them a say in governmental matters, as we shall see.
Considering these facts, it is amazing that those Muslim leaders and writers who talk and write about the Islamic state, seldom refer to this important seminal political document of Islam.
It is to be remembered that Muhammad (S) had been commissioned as a prophet, reciting God's revelations to his fellow Makkans, for thirteen years before he and his followers migrated to Yathrib, two hundred and ten miles to the north of Makkah. There were going to be another ten years to his mission before he completed the delivery of the Divine Message to the Arabs and to all mankind in God's Final Scripture, the Qur’an. The Madinah Charter was provisional in the sense that it would not contain all the provisions of statecraft contained in the Qur’an. Yathrib later came to be known as "The City of the Prophet" or simply Madinah. The reason for the migration was the growing opposition of the Quraish aristocracy to his teachings, persecution of the Prophet and his followers, and the receptive attitude of many Yathrib pilgrims to Makkah.
The whole text of the Charter has been reproduced, word for word, by Ibn Ishaq/Ibn Hisham and Abu Ubaid in their respective books from the original preserved by Ibn Abi Khithamah. (FN4)
The Charter consists of 47 clauses, but due to different methods of numbering, it may count to be 52 (FN5).
Clauses 1, 2 and 39 state the formation of a sovereign nation-state with a common citizenship, consisting of various communities, principally Muslim Arabs migrating from Makkah (the Muhajirin or Immigrants), Muslim Arabs from Yathrib (the Ansar or Helpers), the local Jews and others who were at that time still pagans. These constituted a unified citizenry (Ummah), having equal rights and responsibilities, as distinct from other peoples in the Arabian Peninsula.
It should not escape any mind that these two clauses established the first modern nation-state in the world. Although Madinah was just a city, its Charter was to last until the beginning of the Umayyad Dynasty in 661. Western historians erroneously cite the Treaties of Westphalia in 1648 as the beginning of the modern nation-state era. (FN6)
The Charter provided a federal structure with a centralized authority, with the various tribes in various districts constituting a unit and enjoying autonomy in social, cultural and religious diversity. Provision for this autonomy is repeated for each district. [Clauses 3 through 11 and 26 through 35]
Except for state security and national defense, the autonomous units had jurisdiction over all affairs. [Clauses 17, 36 (a) and 47]. Provisions for these centralized subjects are made in Clauses 13, 15, 17 and 44. Only the disputes that the units could not resolve, were forwarded for decisions to the Prophet (S) whose decision was final after he had made due consultation with the concerned district leaderships. [Clauses 23 and 41]
This new constitution brought with it a very important and revolutionary improvement by providing the people with a central public institution for seeking justice, rather than everyone seeking it with the power of his own hand or that of his family and friends. This epoch-making innovation brought an end to the chaos of Tribalism and laid down the basis for a wider institution, namely, a State under the rule of law. (FN7)
It should be noted that this loyalty to the State by its plural citizenry constituted a nation. It is in line with the teachings of the Qur’an.
49:13 O Mankind! We have created you male and female, and have made you nations and tribes so that you may affectionately come to know one another. Certainly, the most honored among you, in the Sight of God, is the one who is best in conduct. God is Knower, Aware. (FN8)
There were twenty districts each with a chief (Naqeeb) and deputy chiefs (‘Arif) and its specific meeting place, call it assembly (Saqeefah). Out of the total population of about twenty thousand, Muslims made up only a few hundred. Half of it were Jews and the rest were polytheists. (FN9)
It is noteworthy that the Charter ordained equality to its members and guaranteed them protection against oppression. [Clause 16]. The State proclaimed Brotherhood of believers and gave each one the right to give protection to any individual, excepting a common enemy. [Clause 15]. It also extended help to its members in debt or in financial difficulties in regard to payment of ransom or blood-money. [Clause 12]. It prohibited help or refuge to a murderer. [Clause 22].
A very important human right is given in Clause 25 where freedom is guaranteed for each community to practice its own religion. Each individual was free to choose his or her religion, the freedom proclaimed in the Qur’an in 2:193, 2:256. (FN10)
Another important principle of statecraft is Consultation with the people in all public matters. This is stated in Clause 37(a). The mutual consultation in the Saqeefahs and the Federal Center obviated a basic flaw in the Western democracy where the voice of the people, vox populi, regardless of whether that voice represents right or not, is given the highest value.
Another important principle of just governance was that no quarter was given to injustice or wrong-doing. This is stated in the Charter Clause 47.
As stated above, this constitution is Prophet Muhammad's vision at formulating a constitution when he was confronted with the task of administrating the City-state of Madinah. At this time, although completely downloaded on his heart, the entire Qur’an had not yet been recalled to the Prophet himself. This recall, on the intermittent prompting of the angel of Revelation, was conveyed to people only in stages. Therefore, he had to fall back on prevalent customs and precedents, and he did. Essentially, all constitutions are provisional in the sense that they must be adaptable to changing times.
Although a family may indirectly suffer the consequences of a crime committed by a member, (Clauses 25 and 36(b), no person would be punished except for the crime he personally committed. (Clause 46)
Perhaps, in the light of present Muslim interest in an "Islamic State", we should point out that this important constitutional document of Islam does not anywhere use the term "Islamic State" of "Islamic Society". The major principles governing an Islamic society were already present in the Charter: Principles like justice, brotherhood of believers, unity and cooperation among citizens of the state, freedom of religion, strict adherence to treaties, cooperation in doing good and preventing evil, encouragement of high moral conduct, and consultation as a method of government. It is also interesting to note that "Hudud laws" so-called by Islamic clergy are nowhere mentioned in the document.
It should be noted that the Charter, this first Islamic political-constitutional document, was given to the people of Madinah in the name of Muhammad the Prophet (Clause 1) and also in the name of God as well as Prophet Muhammad. [Clause 47]. Why two different ways of phrasing the ultimate source of power? It is to be remembered that during the Middle Ages in the West, the Church ruled supreme in the name of God, and God's name was, of course, much misused by hypocrites and opportunists. The modern Western practice of replacing God with the people has, of course, not helped matters very much. In the name of the people, oppression, wars, colonialism and aggressions have been incessantly launched.
Thus, even in this modern age of science and technology, mankind cannot ignore a power that is greater than itself. Mankind has an autonomous right to live, and to live happily, but they must do so in an environment subject to Divine Laws. It is in this sense, the Charter was given in the name of Muhammad the Prophet, who represented the principles of the good and right, which is higher than the individual. Likewise, in Clause 47 God's name was put first, as God represents the highest Good and the Highest principle of right reason. This is necessary to raise Man to higher and higher achievements.
THE MADINAH CHARTER (FN11)
With the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful.
(1) This is a document from Muhammad the Prophet (governing the relations) between the believers (Muslims of Quraysh and Yathrib) and those who followed them and joined them and labored with them.
(2) They are One Community (Ummah) distinguished by their Faith.
(3) The Quraysh emigrants according to their present custom shall pay the bloodwit (ransom for murder to the grieved family) within their number and shall redeem their prisoners with the kindness and justice common among believers.
(4-8) The B. ‘Auf according to their present custom shall pay the bloodwit they paid in heathenism; every section shall redeem its prisoners with the kindness and justice common among believers. Bani Sa’dah, Bani Harith, Bani Jusham, and Bani Najjar will do likewise.
(9-11) Bani ‘Amr, Bani ‘Auf, Bani Nabit and Bani ‘Aus will have the same rights and obligations.
(12)(a) Believers shall not leave anyone destitute among them by not paying his redemption money or bloodwit in kindness.
(12)(b) A believer shall not take as an ally any man against the people.
(13) The God-fearing believers shall be against the rebellious or him who seeks to spread injustice, or sin or animosity, or corruption between believers. The hand of every man shall be against him even if he be a son of one of them.
(14) A believer shall not slay a believer for the sake of an unbeliever, nor shall he aid an unbeliever against a believer.
(15) God’s protection is one - the least of them may give protection to a stranger on their behalf. Believers are friends to one another to the exclusion of outsiders.
(16) To the Jew and non-Jew who follow us belong help and equality. He shall not be wronged nor shall his enemies be aided.
(17) The peace of the believers is indivisible. No separate peace shall be made when believers are fighting in the way of God. Conditions must be fair and equitable to all.
(18) In every foray a rider must take another behind him.
(19) The believers must not avenge the blood of one another shed in the way of God.
(20)(a) The God-fearing believers enjoy the best and most upright guidance.
(20)(b) No polytheist shall take the property of a person of Quraysh under his protection nor shall he intervene against a believer.
(21) Whoever is convicted of killing a believer without good reason shall be subject to retaliation unless the next of kin is satisfied (with blood-money), and the believers shall be against him as one man, and they are bound to take action against him.
(22) It shall not be lawful to a believer who holds by what is in this document and believes in God and the last day to help an evil-doer or to shelter him. The condemnation of God and His anger on the Day of Resurrection will be upon him if he does, and neither repentance nor ransom will be received from him.
(23) Whenever you differ about a matter it must be referred to God and to Muhammad.
(24) The Jews shall contribute to the cost of war so long as they are fighting alongside the believers.
(25) The Jews of Bani ‘Auf are one community with the believers (the Jews have their religion and the Muslims have theirs), their free men and their persons except those who behave unjustly and sinfully, for they hurt but themselves and their families.
(26-35) The same applies to the Jews of the Bani an-Najjar, Bani al-Harith, Bani Sai’ida, B. Jusham, B. al-Aus, B. Tha'laba, and the Jafna, a clan of the Tha‘laba and the B. al-Shutayba. Loyalty is a protection against treachery. The freed men of Tha ‘laba are as themselves - The close friends of the Jews are as themselves.
(36) None of them shall go out to war except with permission of Muhammad, but one shall not be prevented from taking equitable revenge for a wound. He who slays a man without warning destroys himself unless it be one by due process of law, for God will accept that.
(37) The Jews must bear their expenses and the Muslims their expenses. Each must help the other against anyone who attacks the people of this document. They must seek mutual advice and consultation, and loyalty is a protection against treachery. A man is not liable for his ally’s misdeeds. The wronged must be helped.
(38) The Jews must pay with the believers so long as war lasts.
(39) Yathrib shall be a sanctuary for the people of this document.
(40) A stranger under protection shall be as his host doing no harm and committing no crime.
(41) A woman shall be given protection with or without the consent of her family.
(42) If any dispute or controversy likely to cause trouble should arise it must be referred to God and to Muhammad the apostle of God. God accepts what is nearest to piety and goodness in this document.
(43) The fighting Quraysh and their helpers shall not be given protection.
(44) The contracting parties are bound to help one another against any attack on Yathrib.
(45)(a) If they are called to make peace and maintain it they must do so; and if they make a similar demand on the Muslims it must be carried out except in the case of Jihad of self-defense.
(45)(b) Every one shall have his portion from the side to which he belongs.
(46) The Jews of al-Aus, their freed men and themselves have the same standing with the people of this document in purely loyalty from the people of this document. Loyalty is a protection against treachery. He who acquires, ought acquires it for himself. God approves of this document.
(47) This deed will not protect the unjust and the violator of this document. The man who goes forth to fight and the man who stays at home in the city is safe unless he has been unjust and treacherous. God is the protector of the good and God-fearing and Muhammad is the apostle of God.